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Political Science
POLI 227
Rex Brynen

Jan 23 rd Underdevelopment/Dependency View Established dependency in terms of economics, social relationships, politics, and culture (i.e. Nestle encouraging women in sub-Saharan Africa to use powdered infant formula by appealing to a notion of modernity/Western practices) Two struggles- class struggle and nationalist regimes vs the dominant capitalist states Institutionalist View Legacies of institutions forged in the colonial and immediate post-colonial era had enduring effects- consitution, legal system, parties or national liberation movements (i.e. institutional categorization of Hutus and Tutsis by Dutch resulted in ethnic tensions and genocide) The institutions do not lock countries into certain positions, but they do encourage them and make it easier for them to act in certain ways/move in certain directions Examining the historical context is especially important when considering the developing world At independence, a lot changed formally (new state and state machinery, new political demands) and a lot didn’t (economic dependency, structure of local society), which begs caution against assuming the supremacy of politics as the sole influence on social change Instability of most colonial regimes- extraconstitional political change tended to dominate in the immediate post-colonial era, although this has changed due to increased levels of democratization and civil wars peaked after decolonization and the Cold War (Russia withdrew its support from former allies which left their states vulnerable and much weaker) How important is stability? - Huntington thinks stability is the ultimate goal, represents his republican views which fears individuals and their influence on politics (interest groups etc.) - Stability as a prerequisite: it is difficult to do things without a base degree of political order and is important because political elites are interested in it - Have to keep in mind that stability is not necessarily always a good thing- can tend to produce very repressive regimes Two major tasks: State Building - Police, taxation systems - Permanent, ongoing apparatus of government which exists regardless of who is in power Political consolidation - Repression to make sure the dominant power cannot be opposed - Efforts of particu
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