Lecture #03 – 14/01
APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF THE 3 RD WORLD POLITICS (SUITE)
- underdevelopment approach
developmentalists wrong and ethnocentric to suggest one dynamic for political and eco
The third world finds it self locked into an inferior position, pol and esp eco subordinate to
x relationshipstf dependence : dep of 3 world on raw materials exports, terms of trades
are unequal, 1 world controls advanced techno. st rd
There is a center –peri relationship : between the 1 and 3 world, and xwithin the
developign wrld, “comprador elite”
- given these relation , 3 word dev is a product of, nature of the relationship with the west
and the wolrd capitalist market, and domestic class struggle.
Institutions, (formal structures, parlements, conscti, the norms); enable and constrain
actions (affects the strategic calculations and reflect and sustain norms).
Importance of path dependency and critical junctions (pol and insti choices at T1 will
create and forclose pol policy options at Tx.
(Canadian policy is deeply shaped by constitution, once strat down the path, diff to get off;
once started with a decentralized systm of canada; then easy to get federalism; too much
politics and identity sustained by federalism).
Critica l junctions = point where constitutions are put tghtr; tunisia are in a critical junction
cose wrtiting their constitution.
RATIONAL CHOICE APPROACH
Politics can be viewed throught he lens of rational, utility maximizing ind. Collective
behavior is a function of many micro-decisions (once demonstrations got over a certain size;
the will to change the pol system was not hinderd by the fear of being arrested).
There is an importance of info (when with mubarak said that revo was not good, so
rationally hid their ideas and preferences. After throw of ben ali regime (tunisia); and so
thought that are not that powerful; new info is that are lot of pp who think like I do when see
pb to know what is rational especially for non material things. Diff to have the definition of
POLITICAL CULTURE APPROACHES
Politics is shaped by cultural views (grp id, legitimacy pluralism).
do not presume that cult views are fixed and so can change over time.
Eg. change from agrarian soci, highly cotrolled by the church; to urban soc in which less role
of the church in Quebec in 1950‟s.
See table : contrasting the approaches.
developemnt – stability
underdevelopment – dependency, underdev
institutionalist – how strategic choices shape politics. ??
THE IMPACT OF COLONIALISM
1492: columbus; and sailed to the americas.marked the beginnign of an era of EU expansion
and conquest and will have impact on the amricas and countries colonized. Precolonial societies : they are impossible to genralize (cose lack of written records; and lot
of div pol, soc, eco).
But there are various patterns of agri , but most are SUBSISTENCE based (production for
High bitrh rates and deathrates,
Decentralized and parochial (lives revolved around immediate location (village) and
family; what was 250 km away was not important for thir survival) and “traditional” (suffiient to
get you to the next generation, tradition represented a known way of doing things with known
consequences; and did not engage in innovation cose could have risks).
Expansion of the colonial rule
A/ the Americas :
conquTHt followed by trade, LA (spanish and portuguese); NA ( french and british).
(By 17 most LA/ carribean under control of S and P).
the amricas becoeme under control of European; conquest followed by trade with
European colonialism. Pattern is the reverse of the one in aisa (long standing trade relations,
followed during colonial conquest by relation.
conquest was extremely brutal; recruited as labor, catholicized; growing nbr of black
Eu colonialism tranfromed the societies, indigeneous pop were marginalized, settlers
arrived, no reminiscence of precolonial soci (destroyed or changed). Diff than elsewhere
where there were reminiscents of precolonial.
trade (semi offcial trading companies) followed by conquest, (first portu, then dutch (east
indies), british (india) and france (indochina)).
reestablish control over companies and greater political control in area where traded.
indi pop were not exterminated (cose too big)
local soc were transformed and did not banish as social cultural enemies; so reminiscenc
of precolonial pop and culture.
C/ AFRICA :
At beginning colo as a function to maitain links for trade with asia (only the coast, small
part was colonized).
Slave trade (16-19 C).
until late 19 th C that int in large scale acquisition of africa, cose doest seem to have lot of
resources like gold in LA; but 1870 not lot of places left to colonize, lot of competition in
europe with Germany so there is a SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA. (1870-1900)
lecture #04 – 16/01
are more vulnerable to changes in eco; those with better asset withstand better.
Lecture #05 – 18/01
Gdp masks the uneven impact on develeopment . so risky to use only the GDP.essential
to rec that dev is not an unambigiuous good. Dev is complicated in terms of how we define it;
and is possible for an expansion in eco , but mpact of dev canbe uneven .
scramble for afric, expansion of european influence on african continent , for long time not
colonized. Rapidly under british, french control, germany , portuguese, italian.
last to be colonized was the MIDDLE EAST cose there was already a powerful empire
there THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE; Was a mediterenean and european power. Much of me
under control until wwI. THE IMPACT OF COLONIALISM (onshaping the current developing world)
developmental approach , sees colonization as a process of modernization (com trnaspo,
expands), and colonization wans‟t fundamentally different from modernization (modernization
underdev theory, the colonial area sets a relation that makes it more diff for the countres to
A/ in the Americas
“american pattern” (clapham)
indi societies destroyed /margi
settler regimes, new social order (based on color/race and class
plantation, haciendas economies
pol control passes from metropole to local white elite.
When deco comes, not a transfer from the euro to pop, but the transfer from the euro to elite
of the pop (which were most of the time european ellites)
B/ africa and asia
indigeneous soc often larger, more robust, or more remote
political control when deco passed to colonized power; to a local pop that has been
affected by colo affected the agenda set by colonial needs, borders set by colonial power
and ideological justification (racist) on the part . french saw themselves as having a civilizing
mission; diff things about why were doing the right thing; white men‟s burden
PATTERN OF COLONIAL RULE
centralized / direct (algeria , st pierre et miquelon), no participation by the local pop ; only
settlers and colonizing countries.
indirect , assoc with british colonial rule (but not all); coopting local elites to be the
implementer sof colo , by providing them with certain benefits and strengthening their power.
In the persian gulf, there were already emirates, but their power was weak; so the british
backed them with golden guns. And changed things. The contemporary gulf ar emore
centralized in part due to the legacy of colo rule. At times colo invent traditioanl elite : eg.
jordany, come from saudi arabia; arab allies arguing with french about syria; british sent to
ashimit family of jordany dates from ww1.
- Regardelss of the way , power is willing to use orce when nec to inforce their authority .
after wwI , limit the use of some weapons and at that time churchill argued that non should
apply to colo cose need it to impkement their power. (congo, algeria).
POLITICAL ECONOMY OF COLONIALISM (relation was usually economic)
Americas : gold and silver, sugar
africa : slaves, coffee
asia : opium (opium war : china attempted to close the sell of opium in china and british
regarded that as an affront to free trade, and forced them to import opium from india); tea,
econ relation, incoproation into global eco had dramatic effect on loca societies / soc
transformed by trade
EFFECTS ON LOCAL SOCIETIES
incorporation into global eco
- transformation on local subsistence agriculture
- shift to cahs crops
- concentration of land hodings
- destruction of traditional industries
- export-oriented infra, enclave development - colonial taxation (when is a fixed rate much more likely to spark peasant revolt than if
new european conceptions of law, propery rights, gender, identity
adoption of european language , culture , religion
colonial-settler regimes where large nrbrs are coming from outside (canada, usa, new
NATIONALISM, NATIONAL LIBERATION AND DECOLONIZATION ;
Colo lasted a certain amount of years (LA : 300; india : 200; Africa : 100; ME : 50 )
how on one had canthe west be o powerful that can conquer the rest of the wordl and in a
matter of a decades this power decreases ?
RISE OF NATIONALIST RESISTANCE
traditional resistance : initial or conti resistance to colo conquest based on local society
and capabilities. Rarely successful ( eg. USA). But is not unimportant cose use it as a symbol
of resistance nowadays.
modern nationalist mvmnt : rooted in the new society, in the changes of soci; changed by
the colonial experience. The mobilization, the resources are rooted in the changes.
Lecture #06 – 21/01
1850 – 19 had declared their independence. And then massive flow of decolonization after
Why does this occur ? how ? and what impplications does deco have ?
A/ the AMERICAS (boulevard and georges washington)
brazil peacefully seperated from portugal when at war with france/ napoleon
B/ LATIN AMERICA
- spanish and portugueuse control was weak (cose colonies were far from spain and
portugal and this led to see below.
political power passes to local white elite
hastened by american and french revolutions ; napeolonic wars, US (monroe doctrine),
and british policy
C/ ASIA (in asia occurred much lately, and for the firdt two happened before)
partition of india and pakistan was very violent
indonesia, dutch attempted to reassert their control didn‟t work
french in ondociina, in vietnam, the viet cong had been allied xith the west aginst the
japapnese, and the french with japanese in vietnam in order to keep their eco interests. Then
WWII; and the french want indochina back.; vietnamese didn‟t want, british used indian troop
to reestablsh the french; and gave arms to japanese to reassert the power of french in
vietnam. Historical irony fighting japanese during wwii and then rearming them after.
in both A AND A (unlike the americas , where europeanized pop led the struggle for
independence, but nationalist mvmt in africa and asia.
anti-colo in rural areas: some elites found their traditional power marginilized; and led
them to support anti colo resistance. But also had peasants that supported anti colo. Had
gained greater access to poli power; asked why am I answering to the colonialists? But
difficult for peasants to organize revolts; lacck edu resources and don‟t nec feel a strong
case of solidarity with other peasants in the country. But mass peasant revolt tended to occur when their survival was threatened by the political eco of colonial power. But most of the time
quiet cooperation and ressitance (eg. cutting the wire). But much did not see the colonial
power cose was in the capital; in rural areas.
in urban areas : alienated rural migrants had gone to urban areas; pop who had little to
do with each other , lived with each other so URBA LED TO NEW SENSE OF IDENTITY; the
working class (regular position in factories) was growing; students, civil servants, new class
of professionnals had gained acess to poli, found their upper mobility blocked to get a certain
rank , influence had to be european, even though some of their social horizons was
goal was to advantage the trade, interests of the Western world
URBAN AREAS : had increased exposure to education and new ideas (american and
french revolution, notion of democracy, right to resist foreing occupation with ww) , other
social grps, greater access to techno , commu, and moroe intimate knowledge of strength
and weaknesses of colo .
Challenge for nationalist mvmnt was to link all the grievances into a linked national
struggle/mvmnt (not always the same; similar interests so not easy, one advantage the
mvlnt had is that the colinial power were DIFFERENT and so anti col mvmnt did not have ot
dev complicated pol platforms could play on the id : let „s get rid of the foreigners. The
ideological glue would dissapear after independence.
TRANSITIONS TO INDEPENDENCE
INDIA : protests, strikes, riots, non violence;
algeria : full scale war of national liberation.
Jordan : british confindent that ashmyt monarchy would maintain the western interests
Were cases were mvmnt fought a guerilla war in north vietnam (french defeated); wars of
national liberation didn‟t put defeat on the colonial power. In algeria, by the end, france was
winning oin the battlefield, but the pop felt that ideo no longer wanted to continue. Mvmnt
won when war made colo so expensive that wasn‟t worth continuing not cose won militarily.
PATTERNS OF DECO
most deco was accompanied by protests and sporadic violence
wars of national liberation are compa rare (usually poli, rather than military victory)
some cases of unresoved colo remained after the 1970‟s (sahara under marocan after the
sapnish left in 1974; kurds argued promised inde after the WWI, but never got it, so would
argue under delayed decolonization; palestinian say never got their land cose of the vritish
gave the same land to the jews (“belford” declaration); tibet as victim of chinese col rule.
- EVOLUTIONARY : > education, >participation in politics, administration (during colo
period), westernized elite (more comfortable giving power back to a gov that supports
the west), high pop ration (if 800 to 1 col can t hang on and fight back), local gov
- REVOLUTIONARY : little education, participation, no westernized elite; low pop ratio ;
colonial rule/ interests.
strength of colonial attahcment : relates to economic interests (algeria and france);
strategic factors (south yemen cose is a the southern en dof the red sea; best deep ater port
of the area, hang on for military strategic reasons), cultural factors (algeria, for french algeria
was part of France)
strenght of the national mvmt also has an impact.
Deco also occurred in the context of CHANGING INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM
declinign colonial powers less able to maitain the colonies (napoleonic wars and WWII)
CHANGING BALANCE OF POWER (monroe doctrine, and CW) LEGACIES OF COLONIALISM
the developmental view (accelerated social and pol change; said that colo was a
advanved type of modernization)
- Destruction of traditional social and poli organization
- Accelerated social mobilization
- New ideas
- Rising expectation
pb of pol leadership and institutionalization
poverty and limited resources
increased demands and lower capabilities and led to political decay/ pol instability
hungtington argues that stability requires strong poli apparatus to control demands ; so could
come from a nationalist party, or from the military.
Lecture #07 – 23/01
the underdevelopmental view ( during the era of col rule that dep relationship were
established ; were eco, soci pol, cult) sees this area as fundamenal est the pattern of
relation. Dependency was shaped by the class struggle within dev countries and also the
struggle between the developing countires and westernized states. Saw these two cycles;
institutuionalist views : legacies forged in col/ immediate post colonial era
(constitution/legal system/ parties). How adminstrive decisions and institutions can have an
STATE BUILDING AND REGIME CONSOLIDATION
When colo rule ended, - end to colo rule; new state, new pol demands and much DIDN‟T
CHANGE : eco dependency stayed and strucutre of local soc were maintained.
immediate post colonial period was characterized by INSTABILITY (coups/civil conflict).
(Legacies of deco and CW and leads to wars); included nigeria; vietnam; pakistan
/bangladesh; sudan; congo
STABILITY AND INSTABILITY
LA was dominated by insta ; now more democratic, remarkable tranformation. In other olaces
see patterns of change.
huntington; he and others said that without pol ordder have nothing (autho.demo;
respectful of rightd/ repressive) cose cant puruse dev programs. Also in pratice all pol elites
are int in pol order; had a POLITICAL ORDER FETICHE. Called it demo distemper (hippies
during vietnam war); but poli stability is not that imp cose during nazi occupation, saddam
hussein had stable pol order. But cant say that their regimes were a normative good thing; so
cant focus on stability cose not always a good thing.
state-building : building the admins capacity of institutions of the state (police) ; builiding
permanent ongoing apparatus stays in place non regarding of who is in power.
political consolidation : I as a particular elite consolidate my power (and the two are fuzzy
when autho regime); and use the insti to consolidate my power. Can try to consolidate by
repress opponent, or build big enough coalition so that cant be removed.
DIFFERENCES IN pol consolidation in demo and non demo : cose in demo no repression
and got to win an election (make really big coalition)
In autho : nice to have a coalition; and be liked; but what you need is a POWERFUL coalition
doesn‟t have to be big( cose doesn‟t matter what the pop thinks).
STATE-BUILDING Deco left countries with a weakly dev state apparatus (portuguese left nothing behing;
mozambic; british left stringer insti behind but not in south yemen only one mathematician in
the whole countryso hard to do taxes etc.). not only in terms of bureaucracy; but in terms of
constitution and parliament (was not that legitimate; put tghtr quickly). Due to a lack of order;
lack of sense of id.
Five aspects of SB
state capacity : admin, bureau, coercion, building machinery of gov
state strength : gov autonomy from social grps
state penetration : does the state ab to administer, regulate distant countryside; does it
reach to disadvantaged areas in cities (eg. Brazil with slums)
state extraction : ab of the state to generate revenue through taxation. If are a weak
state may be a limited nbr of ways to generate revenue and easiest way is to tax on trade .
later see taxation extending into business. Ultimate form of taxation is income tax , allows
you to redistibute but hard to do.
state legitimacy: attitudes to the pol system is mportnt. Widespread political acceptance
is really imp. Military coup : idealational factor don‟t just overthrow a gov like that plays an
important role; legitimacy, notion of accepting the rule of the game is important for state-
As the country grows, its eco grows through taxation, expenditure and regulation. (playing a
more regulatory role).
Lecture #08 – 28/01
The state‟s eco role ; involved in the eco
as generate states resources
for purpose of introducing eco dev
for purpose of redistribution of income
a political tool; use its ab to expands resources to strengthen key constituencies.
Land refrom in egypt – achieving a socila goal through eco redistribution; but a lso a pol tool
(1952 coup), grew support from the low classes and so land reform was to adress a social
need and reward his supporters and punish his opponents.
Chart – level of inequality if the gov did not exist and whn exists. Highlight the imp role that
the state can play.
1/ REPRESSION : in authoritarian country. Developing countries spend 2-3% in defense and
same for health care. Eg. syrian regime. Can be a powerful policy tool for autho to stay in
Whilst autho countries engage in repression, mistake to oonly conceptionalize their regimes
in terms of coercion. Rare that even autho regime stay solely by represisng opponent, have
to maintain some degree of pol support from somoewhere.
(Gaddafi, mubarrak, ben ali cose lost the loyalty of their security forces.)
- what are the building blocks of the coaltion, who do they appeal to? Size and nature of
coalition may differ, but even in autho regime need a coalition.
- What is that holds coalition tghthr ? share same visions/ideas; resources (promise of
personal benefit cose support you) Diagram : free, not free, partly free – increase of free, and decrease of not free.
Competitive multi-party systems
- diff pol party, compete for votes (not fraud, fair)
- try to speak on behhalf of social grps; and aggregate interests.
- Support bases may be broad (eg. US) or narrow (Israel)
- Nbr of pol parties is shaped by the societal cleavages, and the pol system : along ethnic,
cultural lines. Way in which cleavages are distri hs implications on who is represented.
may minimize minority representation, depending on both districting and minority distri
(SMC and MMC)
national PR representation accurately represents minority share sof the pop, but provide
no protection from majoritarianism.
- importance of civil society (= networks of auto assoc that lie between the family and th
state), play a key role in art certain issues, try to push for certain policies.
Restricted multi-party systems
- hybrid regimes
- parties , elections, legislature
- electoral manip, fraud, coercion, control over state machinery, control on state media ,
even if elecctions are free and fair doesn‟t matter cose the power lies elsewhere (eg.
jordan, power of consti decisions isimp (decisions made by the king), and legislature/
parliament doesn‟t have a lot of power, can ovverride the king , but 2/3).
- Can‟t entirely ignore the electoral part;
Formal groups : have orga, leadership, but tend to lag in orga (true in poor dev countries),
elite grps are better orga than formal grps. State bureaucracy as an interest grp;
Pluralist conception of pol : state is the boxing arena in which social grs compete to decide
for policies; kind of passive
Corporatist conception : Plays an active organizing role in shaping, enabling social grps from
arti reforms, ideas etc.
Informal grps : sometimes may be more imp than formally orga grps; may be able to act in a
horizontal : grp from same social postiton (eg. bunch of military officials)
communal : ethnic or sectarian grps
vertical : patron-client relationship
lecture #09 – 30/01
hold coalitions tghtr –> shared ideas/ material resources
ideology : a pol vision of the way the world works and the way it ought to work.; a
shared ideational blue print of better future; analysis of where we are and ought to be
political culture : underlying attitudes of the pop to core pol issues like poli community
(who is my grp) and pol authority (who has the right to rule me? Etc)
To what extent can I deploy the power of the state , so that can manipulate the ideas, and
maitain support ? from where do poli ideas come from ?
Sources of political socialization = family ((for family, never express ideas in front of children
in authoritarian regimes), peers, religion (but is somewhat resistant to state control), school
(trying to shift certain id, by changing the curicullum or with books); work, (trade unions might be a way, but the state is quite weak there mass media (ab to use mass media = NK ; great
firewall of china (tries to control info going in and out/ in arab world collapsed with the first
satellite tv and internet (tunisia)).
Although ideas are very imp; regimes don‟t have as much power as might think.
US extremely successful at building an national id (eg. every morning at school/ flag)
general, diffuse benefits (flow to the grp, but not you as an ind of that grp
specific benefits (to an ind)
(when combine patron-clients+ state resources) patrons using state resources to satisfy
the demands of their clients (to maintain support) = NEO-PATRIMONIALISM
may think that this type of activity may stop as there is modernaization. But the growth of
the state facilitates NP, and creates new opportunities. Eg. Mexico : ability to manip planning
regulation,.eg. columbia ,drug cartel use money to build comm centers so that the pop kept
not all NP are illegal, not all is corruption – in Alberta, spend money in certain areas to get
votes, but is not illegal.
the lion (stregnth) and the fox (manipulation)
- maintain discriminatory control of resources, avoiding alternative power centers,
encouraging subordinate rivalries (make them mutually hostile).
- Maje sure that not everyone has resources (so that are eager for it), and want it and turn
to you .
EFFECTS OF NP
(short-term) stability (if is a post colonial state, use NP in a pol way to gain a degree of
pol consolidation, that would not get fastly in creating pol instititutions
provides reach to weak state, access to pop
reciprocal relationships (are not equal; but the clients are getting somtgh out of it, and
don‟t feel a sense of unfairness)
has a role of integration (eg. morroco,) cose reach to other grps as well outside of your
undermines institutionalization (pp don‟t do things by going throuhg normal channles, but
to pp who have connections
policy distortion ( some things are done cose someone has more pool than someone
else, not cose is sensible to do it)
aggravates communalism ? (if run the system with particular grps; tribal violence in kenya
related to inclusicve and exclusive networks of patrio
lecture #10 – 04/02
EFFECTS OF NEOPATRIMONIALISM
is a frequent part of neopatrionmanial. CAUSES
- new norms + old behaviors : things that used to not be thought of as corrupt; have
come to be thought as corrupt (eg. traditional norms giving gift to the minister before may
not be seen as corruption, but if legal norms change then may be seen as corruption) or
(before in britain if wanted to become a colonel needed to pay; but before not seen as
- new sources of waelth and power : desire on the part of those who have power to
achive certain things ; want to deploy newly found power
- growing importance of the state : when the state becomes important enough to
corrupt have more corruption
- survival skill : by poorly paid public workers; acceptance of a bribe.
- endemic/developmental/planned : accepting a brirbe to ovelook age in a bar / use of
bribery by powerful elite (dev)/ tolerance of corruption by leader cose have their support,
so can overlook corruption. Planned corruption is part of the pol strategy of
- parochial/extractive :
degree of corruption varies from region to region. May have to do with existence of
gangs. high proportion of palestinians comlaingin of corruption, but none done it. Maybe
cose the standards are high (things considered corrption are not seen as this by them); not
always a link between the level of corruption and the perception of the level of corruption.
Does globa or FDI reduce the level of corruption?
THE POLITICS OF CULTURAL PLURALISM
political id; national id; race ; religion; tribe; language
ethnicity ; communalism ; sectarianism ; minorities.
ETHNICITY (ID GRPS) IS A SOCIAL CONSTRUCT (pp are a social grp if they think they
turkey argued that kurds were not turks. And greeks vetoed the intention of macedonia
(former yugo) to name itself macedonia cose was initially greek. (shows that soc grps are a
social grp, if they think they are a social grp).
National id : “ a grp of pp united by a common error about their ancestry and a commo
dislike of their neighbours”.
Cultural pluralism = countries vary in therms of ethnic; religious and other forms of cultural
pluralism. ( either no main, or dominant grp; ad other most of pop are part of a dominant
IRAQ (have pol deeply affected by ethnic or religious divisions)
pop potentially divided along religious and ethnic lines
- majority of arab, kurd and turkoman mino
- sunni (west) and (sh‟ite „south) muslim has become quite imp;
pop are forced to choose id; if there is increase in sectairan violence, might flee to another
safer place. Violence in 2003 in irak led to a sectarian polarization beween sunni and
shiite. Up until american intervention, the tensions was held by hussein authoritarian political effects of sectarian effects
repressive order under husein
kurdish self-gov post 91
increase in sctrian violence after intervention in 2003
2005 constitution : qusi-democratic, quasi-federal, slighlty consociational (rep the two
continued ethnosectarian tensions
800 languages and dialects
1600 identifiable ethnic grps and sub-grps
hindi is the main language, of only 30% of indias pop
has been even more divided than iraq; but has been a demo since independence.
Political effects (
ethnic poli played a key role in the partition of pakistan
democratic federal systel
extensive, mino guarantees
periodic localised ethnic tensions (muslim/hindu riots; kashmir, punjab, NE india)
85% somali is somali by ethnicity; language (homogenoeus in terms of language) but
differences are CLAN divison.
civil war since 1991 :
- peace deal in jan 2004 resulted in parliament with
- gov lacks control of most of the couuntry, and most is ruled by clans.
- unitary dictatorship of mohammed siad barre overthrown in 1991
- country fractures across clan and regional lines
- failed US/UN intervention (92-95)
- transitional fed gov (2004) control lottle more than the parts of Mogadishu, backed by AU
(conflict with islamust grps, piracy)
- break-away regions of somaliland, puntland
lecture #11 – 06/02
THE POLITICS OF CULTURAL PLURALISM (When do id issues become politicized? )
ethnic differences can have an impact on politics. : can lead to political mobilization
(along tribal ethnic lines); political cleavage.
patterns of ethnic relations (relative harmony;
ethnic violence (ethnic vilences; pogroms, civil war, seperatism, irredentism, border
most ethnic and id diff do not result in violence (0.3% of cases in africa result in violence).
Might be other kinds of civil tensions, but no war.
Inherently tend to be selecting on the dependent variable (pb of . No linear correlation
between ethnic pluralism and civil war onset. Not all communal diff are politiclly important :/ but diff that are quite small can
become extremely politicized (eg. jordan : jordanians and palestinians and ciil war 70-71; the
split comes from which side of the creek you come from.)
SOURCES OF POLITICIZATION
primordial cultural id ; deeply rooted, inherited and changes very slowly; language of
ancient tribes. As suggested id are fairly mutable (can change slowly and quickly). Sees
culturalid changes very slow.
common experience : their history gives them an id.
class and communalism : marxism : ethnic id were false consciousness; the real driving
forces of pol were eco; and ethnics got in the way for und the classes.
And liberals : coincidence of eco and ethnic cleavages. Their ehnic id is reinforced by the
clsses cose they coincide.
social mobilization : modernization causes a breakdown of old grps and id; and an
emergence of new grps/id.
elite manipulation : pol entrepeneurs trying to gain pol support may try to mobilize along
ethnic lines (may stress the id of other grp; so that gain support). (eg. congo belgians made
them clear categories (pre colonial were fuzzy grps) and aggravate source of pol tension,
and lead to rwandan genocide).
DEALING WITH ETNIC TENSIONS
POWER-SHARING (2 forms : consociationalism ; agree to share power in some ways
(eg. Lebanan has to be christian, sunni and shiite muslim); or federalism : id grps are geo
concentrated so that then divide into provinces; letting them have autonomy eg. Canada).
SECESSION : eg.ethiopia
EXHAUSTION (eg. ireland; no parties could win)
others : genocide; ethnic cleasing (bosnia by serbian militias; rwanda); forced integration/
ethnic engineering through series of policies trying to erode the existence of a grp (Hussein
try to enc the internal migration of ar