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Political Science
POLI 227
Rex Brynen

Lecture #03 – 14/01 APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF THE 3 RD WORLD POLITICS (SUITE) - underdevelopment approach  developmentalists wrong and ethnocentric to suggest one dynamic for political and eco dev.  The third world finds it self locked into an inferior position, pol and esp eco subordinate to the west. rd x relationshipstf dependence : dep of 3 world on raw materials exports, terms of trades are unequal, 1 world controls advanced techno. st rd There is a center –peri relationship : between the 1 and 3 world, and xwithin the developign wrld, “comprador elite” - given these relation , 3 word dev is a product of, nature of the relationship with the west and the wolrd capitalist market, and domestic class struggle. IINSTITUTIONALIST APPROACH  Institutions, (formal structures, parlements, conscti, the norms); enable and constrain actions (affects the strategic calculations and reflect and sustain norms).  Importance of path dependency and critical junctions (pol and insti choices at T1 will create and forclose pol policy options at Tx. (Canadian policy is deeply shaped by constitution, once strat down the path, diff to get off; once started with a decentralized systm of canada; then easy to get federalism; too much politics and identity sustained by federalism).  Critica l junctions = point where constitutions are put tghtr; tunisia are in a critical junction cose wrtiting their constitution. RATIONAL CHOICE APPROACH  Politics can be viewed throught he lens of rational, utility maximizing ind. Collective behavior is a function of many micro-decisions (once demonstrations got over a certain size; the will to change the pol system was not hinderd by the fear of being arrested).  There is an importance of info (when with mubarak said that revo was not good, so rationally hid their ideas and preferences. After throw of ben ali regime (tunisia); and so thought that are not that powerful; new info is that are lot of pp who think like I do when see manifestations).  pb to know what is rational especially for non material things. Diff to have the definition of rationality. POLITICAL CULTURE APPROACHES  Politics is shaped by cultural views (grp id, legitimacy pluralism).  do not presume that cult views are fixed and so can change over time. Eg. change from agrarian soci, highly cotrolled by the church; to urban soc in which less role of the church in Quebec in 1950‟s. See table : contrasting the approaches.  developemnt – stability  underdevelopment – dependency, underdev  institutionalist – how strategic choices shape politics. ?? THE IMPACT OF COLONIALISM 1492: columbus; and sailed to the americas.marked the beginnign of an era of EU expansion and conquest and will have impact on the amricas and countries colonized. Precolonial societies : they are impossible to genralize (cose lack of written records; and lot of div pol, soc, eco). But there are various patterns of agri , but most are SUBSISTENCE based (production for local consumption)..  High bitrh rates and deathrates,  Decentralized and parochial (lives revolved around immediate location (village) and family; what was 250 km away was not important for thir survival) and “traditional” (suffiient to get you to the next generation, tradition represented a known way of doing things with known consequences; and did not engage in innovation cose could have risks). Expansion of the colonial rule A/ the Americas :  conquTHt followed by trade, LA (spanish and portuguese); NA ( french and british). (By 17 most LA/ carribean under control of S and P).  the amricas becoeme under control of European; conquest followed by trade with European colonialism. Pattern is the reverse of the one in aisa (long standing trade relations, followed during colonial conquest by relation.  conquest was extremely brutal; recruited as labor, catholicized; growing nbr of black slaves.  Eu colonialism tranfromed the societies, indigeneous pop were marginalized, settlers arrived, no reminiscence of precolonial soci (destroyed or changed). Diff than elsewhere where there were reminiscents of precolonial.  trade (semi offcial trading companies) followed by conquest, (first portu, then dutch (east indies), british (india) and france (indochina)).  reestablish control over companies and greater political control in area where traded.  indi pop were not exterminated (cose too big)  local soc were transformed and did not banish as social cultural enemies; so reminiscenc of precolonial pop and culture. C/ AFRICA :  At beginning colo as a function to maitain links for trade with asia (only the coast, small part was colonized).  Slave trade (16-19 C). until late 19 th C that int in large scale acquisition of africa, cose doest seem to have lot of resources like gold in LA; but 1870 not lot of places left to colonize, lot of competition in europe with Germany so there is a SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA. (1870-1900) lecture #04 – 16/01 are more vulnerable to changes in eco; those with better asset withstand better. Lecture #05 – 18/01  Gdp masks the uneven impact on develeopment . so risky to use only the GDP.essential to rec that dev is not an unambigiuous good. Dev is complicated in terms of how we define it; and is possible for an expansion in eco , but mpact of dev canbe uneven .  scramble for afric, expansion of european influence on african continent , for long time not colonized. Rapidly under british, french control, germany , portuguese, italian.  last to be colonized was the MIDDLE EAST cose there was already a powerful empire there THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE; Was a mediterenean and european power. Much of me under control until wwI. THE IMPACT OF COLONIALISM (onshaping the current developing world)  developmental approach , sees colonization as a process of modernization (com trnaspo, expands), and colonization wans‟t fundamentally different from modernization (modernization theory. underdev theory, the colonial area sets a relation that makes it more diff for the countres to dev A/ in the Americas  “american pattern” (clapham)  indi societies destroyed /margi  settler regimes, new social order (based on color/race and class  plantation, haciendas economies  pol control passes from metropole to local white elite. When deco comes, not a transfer from the euro to pop, but the transfer from the euro to elite of the pop (which were most of the time european ellites) B/ africa and asia  indigeneous soc often larger, more robust, or more remote  political control when deco passed to colonized power; to a local pop that has been affected by colo affected the agenda set by colonial needs, borders set by colonial power and ideological justification (racist) on the part . french saw themselves as having a civilizing mission; diff things about why were doing the right thing; white men‟s burden PATTERN OF COLONIAL RULE  centralized / direct (algeria , st pierre et miquelon), no participation by the local pop ; only settlers and colonizing countries.  indirect , assoc with british colonial rule (but not all); coopting local elites to be the implementer sof colo , by providing them with certain benefits and strengthening their power. In the persian gulf, there were already emirates, but their power was weak; so the british backed them with golden guns. And changed things. The contemporary gulf ar emore centralized in part due to the legacy of colo rule. At times colo invent traditioanl elite : eg. jordany, come from saudi arabia; arab allies arguing with french about syria; british sent to ashimit family of jordany dates from ww1. - Regardelss of the way , power is willing to use orce when nec to inforce their authority . after wwI , limit the use of some weapons and at that time churchill argued that non should apply to colo cose need it to impkement their power. (congo, algeria). POLITICAL ECONOMY OF COLONIALISM (relation was usually economic)  Americas : gold and silver, sugar  africa : slaves, coffee  asia : opium (opium war : china attempted to close the sell of opium in china and british regarded that as an affront to free trade, and forced them to import opium from india); tea, rubber; spices econ relation, incoproation into global eco had dramatic effect on loca societies / soc transformed by trade EFFECTS ON LOCAL SOCIETIES  incorporation into global eco - transformation on local subsistence agriculture - shift to cahs crops - concentration of land hodings - destruction of traditional industries - export-oriented infra, enclave development - colonial taxation (when is a fixed rate much more likely to spark peasant revolt than if proportional)  new european conceptions of law, propery rights, gender, identity  adoption of european language , culture , religion  colonial-settler regimes where large nrbrs are coming from outside (canada, usa, new zeeland) NATIONALISM, NATIONAL LIBERATION AND DECOLONIZATION ; Colo lasted a certain amount of years (LA : 300; india : 200; Africa : 100; ME : 50 )  how on one had canthe west be o powerful that can conquer the rest of the wordl and in a matter of a decades this power decreases ? RISE OF NATIONALIST RESISTANCE  traditional resistance : initial or conti resistance to colo conquest based on local society and capabilities. Rarely successful ( eg. USA). But is not unimportant cose use it as a symbol of resistance nowadays.  modern nationalist mvmnt : rooted in the new society, in the changes of soci; changed by the colonial experience. The mobilization, the resources are rooted in the changes. Lecture #06 – 21/01 1850 – 19 had declared their independence. And then massive flow of decolonization after WWII. Why does this occur ? how ? and what impplications does deco have ? A/ the AMERICAS (boulevard and georges washington)  brazil peacefully seperated from portugal when at war with france/ napoleon B/ LATIN AMERICA - spanish and portugueuse control was weak (cose colonies were far from spain and portugal and this led to see below.  political power passes to local white elite  hastened by american and french revolutions ; napeolonic wars, US (monroe doctrine), and british policy C/ ASIA (in asia occurred much lately, and for the firdt two happened before)  partition of india and pakistan was very violent  indonesia, dutch attempted to reassert their control didn‟t work  french in ondociina, in vietnam, the viet cong had been allied xith the west aginst the japapnese, and the french with japanese in vietnam in order to keep their eco interests. Then WWII; and the french want indochina back.; vietnamese didn‟t want, british used indian troop to reestablsh the french; and gave arms to japanese to reassert the power of french in vietnam. Historical irony fighting japanese during wwii and then rearming them after. D/ AFRICA  in both A AND A (unlike the americas , where europeanized pop led the struggle for independence, but nationalist mvmt in africa and asia.  anti-colo in rural areas: some elites found their traditional power marginilized; and led them to support anti colo resistance. But also had peasants that supported anti colo. Had gained greater access to poli power; asked why am I answering to the colonialists? But difficult for peasants to organize revolts; lacck edu resources and don‟t nec feel a strong case of solidarity with other peasants in the country. But mass peasant revolt tended to occur when their survival was threatened by the political eco of colonial power. But most of the time quiet cooperation and ressitance (eg. cutting the wire). But much did not see the colonial power cose was in the capital; in rural areas.  in urban areas : alienated rural migrants had gone to urban areas; pop who had little to do with each other , lived with each other so URBA LED TO NEW SENSE OF IDENTITY; the working class (regular position in factories) was growing; students, civil servants, new class of professionnals had gained acess to poli, found their upper mobility blocked to get a certain rank , influence had to be european, even though some of their social horizons was expanded; goal was to advantage the trade, interests of the Western world  URBAN AREAS : had increased exposure to education and new ideas (american and french revolution, notion of democracy, right to resist foreing occupation with ww) , other social grps, greater access to techno , commu, and moroe intimate knowledge of strength and weaknesses of colo . LINKAGE POLITICS Challenge for nationalist mvmnt was to link all the grievances into a linked national struggle/mvmnt (not always the same; similar interests so not easy, one advantage the mvlnt had is that the colinial power were DIFFERENT and so anti col mvmnt did not have ot dev complicated pol platforms could play on the id : let „s get rid of the foreigners. The ideological glue would dissapear after independence. TRANSITIONS TO INDEPENDENCE  INDIA : protests, strikes, riots, non violence;  algeria : full scale war of national liberation.  Jordan : british confindent that ashmyt monarchy would maintain the western interests and relations. Were cases were mvmnt fought a guerilla war in north vietnam (french defeated); wars of national liberation didn‟t put defeat on the colonial power. In algeria, by the end, france was winning oin the battlefield, but the pop felt that ideo no longer wanted to continue. Mvmnt won when war made colo so expensive that wasn‟t worth continuing not cose won militarily. PATTERNS OF DECO  most deco was accompanied by protests and sporadic violence  wars of national liberation are compa rare (usually poli, rather than military victory)  some cases of unresoved colo remained after the 1970‟s (sahara under marocan after the sapnish left in 1974; kurds argued promised inde after the WWI, but never got it, so would argue under delayed decolonization; palestinian say never got their land cose of the vritish gave the same land to the jews (“belford” declaration); tibet as victim of chinese col rule. - EVOLUTIONARY : > education, >participation in politics, administration (during colo period), westernized elite (more comfortable giving power back to a gov that supports the west), high pop ration (if 800 to 1 col can t hang on and fight back), local gov - REVOLUTIONARY : little education, participation, no westernized elite; low pop ratio ; colonial rule/ interests.  strength of colonial attahcment : relates to economic interests (algeria and france); strategic factors (south yemen cose is a the southern en dof the red sea; best deep ater port of the area, hang on for military strategic reasons), cultural factors (algeria, for french algeria was part of France)  strenght of the national mvmt also has an impact. Deco also occurred in the context of CHANGING INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM  declinign colonial powers less able to maitain the colonies (napoleonic wars and WWII)  CHANGING BALANCE OF POWER (monroe doctrine, and CW) LEGACIES OF COLONIALISM  the developmental view (accelerated social and pol change; said that colo was a advanved type of modernization) DEMANDS : - Destruction of traditional social and poli organization - Accelerated social mobilization - New ideas - Rising expectation CAPABILITIES :  pb of pol leadership and institutionalization  poverty and limited resources increased demands and lower capabilities and led to political decay/ pol instability hungtington argues that stability requires strong poli apparatus to control demands ; so could come from a nationalist party, or from the military. Lecture #07 – 23/01  the underdevelopmental view ( during the era of col rule that dep relationship were established ; were eco, soci pol, cult) sees this area as fundamenal est the pattern of relation. Dependency was shaped by the class struggle within dev countries and also the struggle between the developing countires and westernized states. Saw these two cycles;  institutuionalist views : legacies forged in col/ immediate post colonial era (constitution/legal system/ parties). How adminstrive decisions and institutions can have an effect later. STATE BUILDING AND REGIME CONSOLIDATION  When colo rule ended, - end to colo rule; new state, new pol demands and much DIDN‟T CHANGE : eco dependency stayed and strucutre of local soc were maintained.  immediate post colonial period was characterized by INSTABILITY (coups/civil conflict). (Legacies of deco and CW and leads to wars); included nigeria; vietnam; pakistan /bangladesh; sudan; congo STABILITY AND INSTABILITY LA was dominated by insta ; now more democratic, remarkable tranformation. In other olaces see patterns of change. huntington; he and others said that without pol ordder have nothing (autho.demo; respectful of rightd/ repressive) cose cant puruse dev programs. Also in pratice all pol elites are int in pol order; had a POLITICAL ORDER FETICHE. Called it demo distemper (hippies during vietnam war); but poli stability is not that imp cose during nazi occupation, saddam hussein had stable pol order. But cant say that their regimes were a normative good thing; so cant focus on stability cose not always a good thing.  state-building : building the admins capacity of institutions of the state (police) ; builiding permanent ongoing apparatus stays in place non regarding of who is in power.  political consolidation : I as a particular elite consolidate my power (and the two are fuzzy when autho regime); and use the insti to consolidate my power. Can try to consolidate by repress opponent, or build big enough coalition so that cant be removed. DIFFERENCES IN pol consolidation in demo and non demo : cose in demo no repression and got to win an election (make really big coalition) In autho : nice to have a coalition; and be liked; but what you need is a POWERFUL coalition doesn‟t have to be big( cose doesn‟t matter what the pop thinks). STATE-BUILDING Deco left countries with a weakly dev state apparatus (portuguese left nothing behing; mozambic; british left stringer insti behind but not in south yemen only one mathematician in the whole countryso hard to do taxes etc.). not only in terms of bureaucracy; but in terms of constitution and parliament (was not that legitimate; put tghtr quickly). Due to a lack of order; lack of sense of id. Five aspects of SB  state capacity : admin, bureau, coercion, building machinery of gov  state strength : gov autonomy from social grps  state penetration : does the state ab to administer, regulate distant countryside; does it reach to disadvantaged areas in cities (eg. Brazil with slums)  state extraction : ab of the state to generate revenue through taxation. If are a weak state may be a limited nbr of ways to generate revenue and easiest way is to tax on trade . later see taxation extending into business. Ultimate form of taxation is income tax , allows you to redistibute but hard to do.  state legitimacy: attitudes to the pol system is mportnt. Widespread political acceptance is really imp. Military coup : idealational factor don‟t just overthrow a gov like that plays an important role; legitimacy, notion of accepting the rule of the game is important for state- building. As the country grows, its eco grows through taxation, expenditure and regulation. (playing a more regulatory role). Lecture #08 – 28/01 The state‟s eco role ; involved in the eco  as generate states resources  for purpose of introducing eco dev  for purpose of redistribution of income  a political tool; use its ab to expands resources to strengthen key constituencies. Land refrom in egypt – achieving a socila goal through eco redistribution; but a lso a pol tool (1952 coup), grew support from the low classes and so land reform was to adress a social need and reward his supporters and punish his opponents. Chart – level of inequality if the gov did not exist and whn exists. Highlight the imp role that the state can play. REGIME CONSOLIDATION represson  coalition-building 1/ REPRESSION : in authoritarian country. Developing countries spend 2-3% in defense and same for health care. Eg. syrian regime. Can be a powerful policy tool for autho to stay in power. Whilst autho countries engage in repression, mistake to oonly conceptionalize their regimes in terms of coercion. Rare that even autho regime stay solely by represisng opponent, have to maintain some degree of pol support from somoewhere. (Gaddafi, mubarrak, ben ali cose lost the loyalty of their security forces.) POLITICAL COALITIONS - what are the building blocks of the coaltion, who do they appeal to? Size and nature of coalition may differ, but even in autho regime need a coalition. - What is that holds coalition tghthr ? share same visions/ideas; resources (promise of personal benefit cose support you) Diagram : free, not free, partly free – increase of free, and decrease of not free. Competitive multi-party systems - diff pol party, compete for votes (not fraud, fair) - try to speak on behhalf of social grps; and aggregate interests. - Support bases may be broad (eg. US) or narrow (Israel) - Nbr of pol parties is shaped by the societal cleavages, and the pol system : along ethnic, cultural lines. Way in which cleavages are distri hs implications on who is represented. If have  may minimize minority representation, depending on both districting and minority distri (SMC and MMC)  national PR representation accurately represents minority share sof the pop, but provide no protection from majoritarianism. - importance of civil society (= networks of auto assoc that lie between the family and th state), play a key role in art certain issues, try to push for certain policies. Restricted multi-party systems - hybrid regimes - parties , elections, legislature - electoral manip, fraud, coercion, control over state machinery, control on state media , even if elecctions are free and fair doesn‟t matter cose the power lies elsewhere (eg. jordan, power of consti decisions isimp (decisions made by the king), and legislature/ parliament doesn‟t have a lot of power, can ovverride the king , but 2/3). - Can‟t entirely ignore the electoral part; Formal groups : have orga, leadership, but tend to lag in orga (true in poor dev countries), elite grps are better orga than formal grps. State bureaucracy as an interest grp; Pluralist conception of pol : state is the boxing arena in which social grs compete to decide for policies; kind of passive Corporatist conception : Plays an active organizing role in shaping, enabling social grps from arti reforms, ideas etc. Informal grps : sometimes may be more imp than formally orga grps; may be able to act in a cohesive way  horizontal : grp from same social postiton (eg. bunch of military officials)  communal : ethnic or sectarian grps  vertical : patron-client relationship lecture #09 – 30/01 hold coalitions tghtr –> shared ideas/ material resources 1/ IDEAS ideology : a pol vision of the way the world works and the way it ought to work.; a shared ideational blue print of better future; analysis of where we are and ought to be  political culture : underlying attitudes of the pop to core pol issues like poli community (who is my grp) and pol authority (who has the right to rule me? Etc) To what extent can I deploy the power of the state , so that can manipulate the ideas, and maitain support ? from where do poli ideas come from ? Sources of political socialization = family ((for family, never express ideas in front of children in authoritarian regimes), peers, religion (but is somewhat resistant to state control), school (trying to shift certain id, by changing the curicullum or with books); work, (trade unions might be a way, but the state is quite weak there mass media (ab to use mass media = NK ; great firewall of china (tries to control info going in and out/ in arab world collapsed with the first satellite tv and internet (tunisia)). Although ideas are very imp; regimes don‟t have as much power as might think.  US extremely successful at building an national id (eg. every morning at school/ flag) 2/ RESOURCES general, diffuse benefits (flow to the grp, but not you as an ind of that grp  specific benefits (to an ind) (when combine patron-clients+ state resources) patrons using state resources to satisfy the demands of their clients (to maintain support) = NEO-PATRIMONIALISM may think that this type of activity may stop as there is modernaization. But the growth of the state facilitates NP, and creates new opportunities. Eg. Mexico : ability to manip planning regulation,.eg. columbia ,drug cartel use money to build comm centers so that the pop kept support ).  not all NP are illegal, not all is corruption – in Alberta, spend money in certain areas to get votes, but is not illegal. MAINTAINING NP  the lion (stregnth) and the fox (manipulation) - maintain discriminatory control of resources, avoiding alternative power centers, encouraging subordinate rivalries (make them mutually hostile). - Maje sure that not everyone has resources (so that are eager for it), and want it and turn to you . EFFECTS OF NP Positive  (short-term) stability (if is a post colonial state, use NP in a pol way to gain a degree of pol consolidation, that would not get fastly in creating pol instititutions  provides reach to weak state, access to pop  reciprocal relationships (are not equal; but the clients are getting somtgh out of it, and don‟t feel a sense of unfairness)  has a role of integration (eg. morroco,) cose reach to other grps as well outside of your cultural grp negative  undermines institutionalization (pp don‟t do things by going throuhg normal channles, but to pp who have connections  policy distortion ( some things are done cose someone has more pool than someone else, not cose is sensible to do it) corruption  exploitation  aggravates communalism ? (if run the system with particular grps; tribal violence in kenya related to inclusicve and exclusive networks of patrio lecture #10 – 04/02 EFFECTS OF NEOPATRIMONIALISM CORRUPTION  is a frequent part of neopatrionmanial. CAUSES - new norms + old behaviors : things that used to not be thought of as corrupt; have come to be thought as corrupt (eg. traditional norms giving gift to the minister before may not be seen as corruption, but if legal norms change then may be seen as corruption) or (before in britain if wanted to become a colonel needed to pay; but before not seen as corruption) - new sources of waelth and power : desire on the part of those who have power to achive certain things ; want to deploy newly found power - growing importance of the state : when the state becomes important enough to corrupt have more corruption - survival skill : by poorly paid public workers; acceptance of a bribe. TYPES - endemic/developmental/planned : accepting a brirbe to ovelook age in a bar / use of bribery by powerful elite (dev)/ tolerance of corruption by leader cose have their support, so can overlook corruption. Planned corruption is part of the pol strategy of maintaining support - parochial/extractive :  degree of corruption varies from region to region. May have to do with existence of gangs. high proportion of palestinians comlaingin of corruption, but none done it. Maybe cose the standards are high (things considered corrption are not seen as this by them); not always a link between the level of corruption and the perception of the level of corruption. Does globa or FDI reduce the level of corruption? THE POLITICS OF CULTURAL PLURALISM  ethno-cultural markers political id; national id; race ; religion; tribe; language ethnicity ; communalism ; sectarianism ; minorities. ETHNICITY (ID GRPS) IS A SOCIAL CONSTRUCT (pp are a social grp if they think they are.)  turkey argued that kurds were not turks. And greeks vetoed the intention of macedonia (former yugo) to name itself macedonia cose was initially greek. (shows that soc grps are a social grp, if they think they are a social grp). National id : “ a grp of pp united by a common error about their ancestry and a commo dislike of their neighbours”. Cultural pluralism = countries vary in therms of ethnic; religious and other forms of cultural pluralism. ( either no main, or dominant grp; ad other most of pop are part of a dominant cultural grp) IRAQ (have pol deeply affected by ethnic or religious divisions)  pop potentially divided along religious and ethnic lines - majority of arab, kurd and turkoman mino - sunni (west) and (sh‟ite „south) muslim has become quite imp; pop are forced to choose id; if there is increase in sectairan violence, might flee to another safer place. Violence in 2003 in irak led to a sectarian polarization beween sunni and shiite. Up until american intervention, the tensions was held by hussein authoritarian political effects of sectarian effects  repressive order under husein kurdish self-gov post 91 increase in sctrian violence after intervention in 2003  2005 constitution : qusi-democratic, quasi-federal, slighlty consociational (rep the two gps)  continued ethnosectarian tensions INDIA  800 languages and dialects  1600 identifiable ethnic grps and sub-grps  hindi is the main language, of only 30% of indias pop  8% speak has been even more divided than iraq; but has been a demo since independence. Political effects ( ethnic poli played a key role in the partition of pakistan  democratic federal systel  extensive, mino guarantees  periodic localised ethnic tensions (muslim/hindu riots; kashmir, punjab, NE india) SOMALIA  85% somali is somali by ethnicity; language (homogenoeus in terms of language) but differences are CLAN divison.  civil war since 1991 : - peace deal in jan 2004 resulted in parliament with - gov lacks control of most of the couuntry, and most is ruled by clans. Political effects - unitary dictatorship of mohammed siad barre overthrown in 1991 - country fractures across clan and regional lines - failed US/UN intervention (92-95) - transitional fed gov (2004) control lottle more than the parts of Mogadishu, backed by AU (conflict with islamust grps, piracy) - break-away regions of somaliland, puntland lecture #11 – 06/02 THE POLITICS OF CULTURAL PLURALISM (When do id issues become politicized? )  ethnic differences can have an impact on politics. : can lead to political mobilization (along tribal ethnic lines); political cleavage.  patterns of ethnic relations (relative harmony; ethnic violence (ethnic vilences; pogroms, civil war, seperatism, irredentism, border disputes)  most ethnic and id diff do not result in violence (0.3% of cases in africa result in violence). Might be other kinds of civil tensions, but no war. Inherently tend to be selecting on the dependent variable (pb of . No linear correlation between ethnic pluralism and civil war onset.  Not all communal diff are politiclly important :/ but diff that are quite small can become extremely politicized (eg. jordan : jordanians and palestinians and ciil war 70-71; the split comes from which side of the creek you come from.) SOURCES OF POLITICIZATION primordial cultural id ; deeply rooted, inherited and changes very slowly; language of ancient tribes. As suggested id are fairly mutable (can change slowly and quickly). Sees culturalid changes very slow. common experience : their history gives them an id.  class and communalism : marxism : ethnic id were false consciousness; the real driving forces of pol were eco; and ethnics got in the way for und the classes. And liberals : coincidence of eco and ethnic cleavages. Their ehnic id is reinforced by the clsses cose they coincide.  social mobilization : modernization causes a breakdown of old grps and id; and an emergence of new grps/id.  elite manipulation : pol entrepeneurs trying to gain pol support may try to mobilize along ethnic lines (may stress the id of other grp; so that gain support). (eg. congo belgians made them clear categories (pre colonial were fuzzy grps) and aggravate source of pol tension, and lead to rwandan genocide). DEALING WITH ETNIC TENSIONS POWER-SHARING (2 forms : consociationalism ; agree to share power in some ways (eg. Lebanan has to be christian, sunni and shiite muslim); or federalism : id grps are geo concentrated so that then divide into provinces; letting them have autonomy eg. Canada).  SECESSION : eg.ethiopia  OUTSIDE INTERVENTION  EXHAUSTION (eg. ireland; no parties could win)  others : genocide; ethnic cleasing (bosnia by serbian militias; rwanda); forced integration/ ethnic engineering through series of policies trying to erode the existence of a grp (Hussein try to enc the internal migration of ar
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