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POLI 227 jan 21.docx

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Political Science
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POLI 227
Rex Brynen

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POLI 227 – Lecture Notes November 23, 2013 Decolonization -by 1850 about 19 third world states (in Central/South America) had gained independence -huge wave of decolonization after WWII -1960s: almost 40 states declared independence -why/how did this occur? -what were the implications of decolonization? Decolonization: Americas -wave of decolonization in Latin America -most interesting: Brazil -peacefully separated from Portugal during Napoleonic Wars -heir to Portuguese throne fled to Brazil and never returned Latin America -Spanish and Portuguese control weak -political power passes to local white elite -hastened by American and French revolutions, Napoleonic Wars, US (Monroe Doctrine) and British policy -weak control was a result of distance between Europe and Americas -a press for autonomy from Europe began in America -American Revolution (also a revolution by white settlers against colonial parent) spurred revolution in Latin America too -later, both US and policy and British policy encouraged detachment of Spanish/Portuguese colonies Decolonization: Asia (and Africa) -occurred much later  after WWII -sometimes peacefully but not always -partition of India was extraordinarily violent -Indonesia: Dutch attempted to reassert their control -most interesting case: French in Indochina -during WWII in Vietnam, forerunner to Chinese Communist Party had been allied with the West against the Japanese -French settlers in Indochina worked out a working relationship with the Japanese occupation in order to preserve economic interests -end of WWII: French won Vietnam back -asked British to reassert French control over Vietnam -British used some Indian troops to try and re-establish that power -ended up rearming Japanese troops to put down Vietnamese and put French back in power -this didn’t work out so well in the end -French faced insurgency Africa and Asia -unlike the Americas, where Europeanized populations led the struggle for independence (exception Haiti  successful slave revolt), nationalist movements rooted in changes in local society hastened by colonialism… -anti-colonialism in rural areas  elites  Traditional/excluded  Traditional/coopted  New  peasants -sometimes the coopted elites supported anti-colonial national struggle  typically because having gained political power led to the question of why to answer to Europeans at all -new elites would ask the same question -peasant populations: difficult for peasants to engage in widespread protest or revolt -they don’t have spare economic resources, lack educational resources, etc -peasants don’t necessarily feel a strong sense of solidarity with peasants elsewhere in the country -however, mass peasant revolts could occur -tended to occur when the political economy’s survival was threatened by colonial powers -when it looked like their livelihoods were destabilized, peasants could mobilize in large numbers -typically quiet noncooperation with political authorities -for the most part, colonial power was not seem up close in peripheral rural areas -anti-colonialism in urban areas  alienated rural migrants  small but growing working class  students, civil servants, professionals  petit bourgeoisie  bourgeoisie -urbanization of rural populations often created new identities -some groups had gained employment, access to education, etc -to get to a certain rank, though, you needed to be European -so upward mobility could be a source of conflict -rules of the game were written to the advantages of the Western world -whole point of colonialism was to serve the interests of the colonizing powers -exposure to:  education and ideas  other social groups  technology, communication, organization  strengths and weaknesses of colonialism -“linkage politics” -urbanized populations gained access to all sorts of resources -more intimate knowledge of strengths and weaknesses of colonial powers -ironically, one of the places were colonies had the most access to colonial administration was in the very armies which colonialists recruited to protect their control -colonial powers liked to disproportionally recruit local security sources from minorities  so that they didn’t have the same social linkages to th
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