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Political Science
POLI 227
Rex Brynen

The Politics of Class Defining Social Class - income? - social status? - economic role? - to some extend these tend to overlap (i.e. those with high income tend to have high social status - not always but generally a correlation - what definition you use depends on what your trying to figure out Rural Class Structure - large land-owners - may be competition - have similar interests; against land reforms etc. - middle peasants - in some cases can become politically important - land reform helps not small but rather middle peasants and turned them into large land- owners - small-holding peasants - just large enough to survive on - landless and near-landless - share-croppers, renters - agricultural labourers - primary source of urban migration Urban Class Structure - think of it as their position in economy - tells you in a loose way their interests and politics - bourgeoisie - national/comprador/state? - petite-bourgeoisie/middle class - middle class is ambiguous group with unclear boundaries - mostly anyone whoever is not lower class but not working class either - competition has changed significantly over time in every country - trader, artisans, shopkeepers - traditionally, employ a few but are also directly engaged in production themselves - professionals - become more important with modernization, layers/engineers/school teacher - employees of someone else but their professional qualification and education leads them to have certain interests and POV - civil servants - not in traditional middle class, but have a distinctiveness from working class - industrial working class - regular wage employment for someone else - in developing country typically not large, level of industrialization is low - at first, not working in large factories (trade unionization is harder) - urban marginal sector - not employed in regular waged employment - part time or working informal economy - informal economy - not paying taxes, not proper jobs - may be very important as the part of the economy that absorbs migrating peasants - no job security A Walk in Cairo - doorman: not a regularly waged employee, allowed to sleep on a concrete room on the ground floor, act as a doorman, handyman, janitor, paid by individual renters of the building (part of rural migration, money sent back to family in small village) - soft drink vendor: door-to-door vendors around as well - regular shop and people hawking things on the street (selling out a suitcase so they can run when the police come) - beggar - garbage men: collected by a group who recycle and take organic stuff to feed pigs, paid them by individuals - street vendors react quickly to opportunity (Cairo square = gas masks, revolution ‘trinkers’) - car parkers: no parking, double parking turning 2/3 wide lanes into barely 1, leave the brakes off so they can push cars around - civil servants: go to work, then leave drive a taxi all day, return to work at the end -over time people may gain proper employment, may turn their illegal business into a legal one, may not escape the cycle but their children do - Egypt, easier/higher amount of class movement then in EU - informal/grey economy really about finding a niche in urban society and about exploiting income differences Class Inequality - huge gap between rich/poor - very evident in urban areas - Mumbai, India - luxury condos and slums right next to one another separated by major road - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - same, separated by a fence - in rural areas it is more separated - what tends to happen with development, income inequalities get larger for a period of time Egypt (1952) - leftist military coup - proportion of population: large peasants so small a percentage you cannot see them, near landless are a huge majority (70%) - distribution of land: the small peasants own 30%, near landless have 10% - changed in 1960s, in the 80s and 90s with urbanization it drifted back Nicaragua (1972) - measure of income - med/large landowners tiny (>10%) of population, just over 60% of land - small peasants gap of aprrox. 15% - rural labourers flip of med/large landowners Rural Inequality - using gini coefficients, higher the number the greater the degree of land equality - variation from place to place - may be a historical reason or a geographical reason Gini Coefficients - high inequalities in Latin America Class Inequality and Politics - class inequality can be a major source of political grievance - however, there isn’t a clear relationship between inequality and protest or political mobilization - Latin America, party mobilization could occur on class lines, this has been eroding (Chile, highest level of inequality there has been erosion of class based voting), not a source of political protest - inequality and the Arab Spring - saw protests over economic inequality as one of the major grievances - countries that have had popular uprising do not show significant differences in the level of income inequalities in relation to those who have not had uprisings - even when you control for democratic/developing countries, there again is no significant variation - why did 30 years of inequality not produce an Arab Spring earlier? importance of framing - the importance of political framing - corruption - if corruption was average or not have significantly changed in the last 30 years, why was it such a big point of the Arab Spring - identity politics seems to trump class politics Development and Changing Class Structure - changes in agriculture - urban migration - growth of new urban classes - population growth Demographic Transition - why do we have significant developmental growth - high death rates & high birth rates - less developed countries = medical improvements, death rates fall faster than birth rates (birth rates embedded in centuries of cultural practice) - developed countries = birth rates dropped faster, still slower then death rates - creates increase demands for services - in country side, more children means more land division, generating more landless or near landless peasants, or the other option is one gets the farm and the other migrate to urban areas - shift class structure (less of a problem where there is more land availability) Urbanization - 1950-1960, complete turnaround in urbanization - fundamental change, change in jobs people are doing etc. Growth and Age Distribution 1965 1997 Agriculture (% labour force) 72% 40% Industry (% labour force) 11% 23% Services (% labour force) 17% 37% Urban (% of population) 24% 51% (2010) Gender, Politics and Development Gender and Social Inequality - access to political and economic power is not evenly distributed among social class, or (usually) among ethnic groups - it is also not evenly distributed on the basis of gender Share of Earned Income - men continue to get a large and disproportionate amount of income - varies from place to place Still Earn Less Than Men - even when they have similar education and work experience Female/Male Gender Gap Percent of Gap Earnings Ratio Unexplained Developed Countries 0.77 0.23 80.4% Developing Countries 0.73 0.27 82.2 - in both developed and developing countries, approx. 80% of differential in wages has to do with other things (20% based on education, time in the work field, etc.) Literacy Rates (Developing Areas) - higher male then female literacy In No Region of the Developing World Are Women and Men Equal in Legal, Social and Economic Rights - across the world, particularly bad in middle east, Africa and South Asia Senior Government Position - 5% in developing - 13% in developed Gender Disparities - have tended to decline over time but remain largest in low-income countries, except in political participation - gender equality in low income countries - gender equality in middle income countries - gender equality in high income countries A Puzzle - men and women may have measurable differences in political views and priorities (the so- called “gender gap”) - male and female evaluation of socio-economic conditions in Palestine (2000, pre-intifada) - asked whether things had gotten better in the 5 years of peace process - significant gap between what woman had though had happened (things had gotten better) and what men thought had happened (don’t use the services in the same way (i.e. drinking water)) - yet, unlike class and ethnicity, gender is rarely a major basis for political cleavage - no gender based political parties, one or two get low backing - some gender gap in voting habits, but not more than a couple percent - why? - woman are 51% of the voting population - may be differences within family units (mobilizing against spouse difficult) Gender Roles - the natural order of things? - sources of gender roles - culture - important maintainer and source of gender role - global patriarchy? - near globalization of inequality - norm for a very long period over various societies throughout the world - development - both positive and negative effects - cash crops tend to weaken woman’s role in agriculture, and thus weakening their amount of economic resources under their control - increase access to education, entering the work force etc. - external influences - colonialism - British colonialism spreading negative male and male relationship views - globalization - can be positive (Hilary Clinton) - or negative (neo-traditionalism) because of fears of outside influences Gender Attitudes - male respondent attitudes toward woman’s involvement in politics, education and job force - Latin America and Caribbean, over past 25 years a strong and surprising change in gender attitudes (and homosexual attitudes), much less gender conservative then it was Age, Sex, Education and Attitudes to Gender Role - not all woman share the same view - gender gap (varies in size from country to country) - some men concerned for woman’s rights as well - strategic and practical gender interests - strategic = fundamental legal constitutional equality (i.e. inheritance, child custody rights, etc.) - practical = improvement of day to day life of large number of women (i.e. longer clinic hours, regular school hours, soup kitchens, etc.) - some cases they may pull together, or in opposite directions - practical is based around the idea that women are primary caregivers, focusing on practical therefore could hinder strategic interests - class difference, middle class women care more about strategic and lower class about practical (strategic will not change much in their lives) - public and private spheres - tradition, men predominant in public sphere and women to the private (domestic) - strategic, a movement of woman into the public sphere - slowly roles in the private sphere also changes - formal and informal politics - formal = elections, political parties etc. - informal = patron-client, kinship groups - formal easier to measure - in informal areas woman may be important, but it does not show in formal measurements WID, WAD, GAD - in the 1970s, development agencies and others began to recognize the importance of incorporating gender into planning - women in development (WID) - did analysis then thought about women - women and development (WAD) - fundamentally incorporate women’s roles when doing analysis - gender and development (GAD) - broader gender beyond just women (have to include men) - gender mainstreaming - don’t just do development and thinking of women, rather thinking about women during the whole thing - making it mainstream - positive: bring attention - negative: becomes an automatic process that no one pays attention to Some GAD Examples - agricultural development - assumption that it is a male activity is not the case in many cases - village infrastructure - ex. road paving, men focused on transporting product etc., women concerned about children walking to school - rule of law/legal system reform - population policy/reproductive rights - gender and conflict - disproportional amount of women refugees - casualties of civil wars disproportionally men The Future Generation Benefits from Greater Gender Equality - in Sub-Saharan Africa, if men and women had equal schooling, child mortality would have been 25% lower in 1990 - sanitary practice etc. learned through education - in Brazil, income in the hands of mothers has four times the impact on children’s height-for-age as income in the hands of fathers - in India, children of literate mothers spend two more hours/day studying than children of illiterate mothers - implication of upward social mobility etc. HIV Infection Rates are Higher in Countries Where Gender Gaps in Literacy are Wider Greater Female Education and Smaller Family Size go Hand-in-Hand Gender and Electoral System - narrowing the slowest is the gap in politics, female participation in politics - SMC (SMD), FPTP systems tend to result in the lowest proportion of women being elected - SMC (SMD) = single member constituency/district - riding with one MP, whoever gets the most votes wins - US/CA/UK, results in lowest proportion of women being elected - quite hard to introduce mechanisms to increase female participation - can require that a certain number of females to be running in a party, but cannot require they run in areas they can win (used as a look how many women are running, really know they will not win), does work well - can have reserved seats for women, but if they are geographically based this doesn’t make sense - PR and MMC systems may result in a higher proportion of women being elected, especially when combined with other measures - PR = proportional representation - MMC = multimember constituency - number of people elected is proportional to the number of votes they win - reserved seats - women only, best loser - quotas - closed list system, have a list of runners, win 50% of vote the first 50% of names get a seat - percentage quota - percentage of the list must be women - zipper quotas - every 2 /3 candidate must be a woman - work quite well with closed list systems - general criticism is that you cannot choose your MP, vote for a party not a person - open list means that the people who get the most votes on the list get a seat (order does not matter), makes the zipper quota useless (can only vote for men) Gender and Electoral Systems - variation across countries of percentage of woman in parliament - some middle eastern countries have more women then CA (partially due to electoral system) Democracy and Democratization Defining Democracy - in our earlier discussion - competitive multi-party - clearly democracies - restricted multi-party - in-between, have democracy but is unfair, corrupt or real power lies elsewhere - aka hybrid regimes, mix of structures - one/no-party stat
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