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POLI 227 jan 9.docx

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McGill University
Political Science
POLI 227
Rex Brynen

POLI 227 – Lecture Notes January 9, 2013 WHAT IS THE DEVELOPING WORLD? -themes for today: conceptual definitions -issues regarding the nature of terminology we use, categorization, etc -conferences should open for registration soon -there is one online conference -syllabus is intentionally vague in terms of timing in order to accommodate flexibility -no absolute schedule of what we will do on what day Canada -GDP per capita: $40,500 -life expectancy: 81 years -child mortality: 6/1000 -“industrialized north”; high standards of living -“industrialized north” account for 1 billion of 7 billion people worldwide -but they get about 80% of world resources annually -e.g. 40-1 difference between economic resources per person in Canada and the economic resources per person in Ethiopia -PPP figures are adjusted for various standards of living (e.g. cost of food/housing) -so, the average person in Ethiopia is, in effect, surviving on 1/40 of the annual income of the average person in Canada -colonial era/industrial revolution changed main areas of economic and industrial development -notable recent change: development in South Asia -we are at a point where we’re seeing a shift of economic power of historical proportions -we can compare GDP of nations to GDP of particular companies -e.g. Iranian GDP is about the size of Walmart, Ethiopia’s GDP is smaller than that of Kraft -there are parts of the world where the population is living on less than $1.25 per day (poverty line) -different measurements: gender gaps, under 5 mortality rates, primary school enrolment, etc -in some parts of the world (e.g. North Africa) child mortality rates dropped by half in the past generation -maternal deaths for live births are very high in some parts of the world, but this too is going down  same with HIV numbers -HIV epidemic had significant effects of life expectancy in Sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s -there have been declines in the rate of new infection and in the rate of death -video: Sarah McLachlan, World on Fire (2004) -highlights uneven distribution of global resources -America alone spends 4-5 times what it would cost to produce certain worldwide vaccines -US defence budget is approx. equal to the sum of all the budgets of every Sub-Saharan African nation -second video: Hans Rosling, 200 Countries, 200 Years, 4 Minutes (BBC, 2010) -1810: almost every country was sick and poor  life expectancy below 40; only England and Netherlands were slightly better -Western countries eventually/gradually got wealthier and healthier -but lots of countries remained in the sick and poor square (see video for graph) -1948: US was in the front, Japan was catching, Brazil was way behind, and China/India were still sick and poor -most people today live in the middle (between sick/poor and healthy/rich) -large countries can be split into provinces, causing them to spread apart  e.g. rich provinces of China zoom ahead and poorer provinces fall behind -is it possible for everyone to make it to the rich/wealthy corner? -this video presents a more optimistic picture of a changing global economy -but there are still countries stuck in the sick and poor corner Some terms: first world, second world, third world, fourth?/fifth?, north, south, developing world, industrialized world, NICs, LDCs, HIPCs
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