JANUARY 25, 2012
News Story: On the one-year anniversary of Egypt’s “Arab Spring,” the Muslim
Brotherhood and an Islamic Fundamentalist group took 2/3 of the seats in parliament.
Will the Muslim Brotherhood uphold the democratic value? This government is
supposed to write a new constitution, but the armed forces are the executive power that
gets to appoint this committee to write the new constitution. There is not yet a
transition because the military doesn’t want to give power up, but they have to face the
fact that the parties in parliament won the support of the country and the military
didn’t. How much role will Parliament have? What are the democratic credentials of
the Muslim Brotherhood? They may align with the liberals against the fundamentalists
and align with the fundamentalists (Salafists) against the liberals. Muslim brotherhood
can be very pragmatic and their fear is likely a military coup. Tactically and strategically
their goal should be to consolidate the democratic system because they can get the
The Impact of Colonialism:
Colonialism in the Americas: The “American Pattern” (Clapham)
o The indigenous societies are generally destroyed or marginalized
o Settler regimes and a new social order based on race and class are established
(white/European elite, black/native lower class)
o Plantation/Hacienda (sp: estate) economies → large scale monoculture
o Political control passes from metropole to local white elite
o Haiti is the exception to the transfer of power trend: their independence
occurred because of a successful black slave population, but they had to pay
indemnities to France for their independence.
Colonialism in Africa and Asia:
o Indigenous societies are often larger, more robust or more remote.
o Political control is passed to colonial power, and the agenda is set by colonial
needs and borders are set by colonial powers. There is (racist) ideological
The Impact of Colonialism: (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pw12KGSj53k)
Patterns of Colonial Rule:
o Centralized/Direct→ French used this. They would appoint administrators and
create new political structures and new political elite.
o Indirect→ British used this. They found local elites and co-opted them, making
them more elite. (ex. The establishment of the Hashemite kingdom of Jordan)
o Hands-off→ Dutch used this.
o In all cases, they are backed by the implicit or explicit threat of force when
necessary. Resistance could be met by brutality.
o The French who directly ruled Algeria (it was part of France, not a French
colony) killed many Algerians to resist their independence.