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Lecture

JANUARY 25.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLI 227
Professor
Rex Brynen

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JANUARY 25, 2012  News Story: On the one-year anniversary of Egypt’s “Arab Spring,” the Muslim Brotherhood and an Islamic Fundamentalist group took 2/3 of the seats in parliament. Will the Muslim Brotherhood uphold the democratic value? This government is supposed to write a new constitution, but the armed forces are the executive power that gets to appoint this committee to write the new constitution. There is not yet a transition because the military doesn’t want to give power up, but they have to face the fact that the parties in parliament won the support of the country and the military didn’t. How much role will Parliament have? What are the democratic credentials of the Muslim Brotherhood? They may align with the liberals against the fundamentalists and align with the fundamentalists (Salafists) against the liberals. Muslim brotherhood can be very pragmatic and their fear is likely a military coup. Tactically and strategically their goal should be to consolidate the democratic system because they can get the votes. The Impact of Colonialism:  Colonialism in the Americas: The “American Pattern” (Clapham) o The indigenous societies are generally destroyed or marginalized o Settler regimes and a new social order based on race and class are established (white/European elite, black/native lower class) o Plantation/Hacienda (sp: estate) economies → large scale monoculture o Political control passes from metropole to local white elite o Haiti is the exception to the transfer of power trend: their independence occurred because of a successful black slave population, but they had to pay indemnities to France for their independence.  Colonialism in Africa and Asia: o Indigenous societies are often larger, more robust or more remote. o Political control is passed to colonial power, and the agenda is set by colonial needs and borders are set by colonial powers. There is (racist) ideological justification.  The Impact of Colonialism: (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pw12KGSj53k)  Patterns of Colonial Rule: o Centralized/Direct→ French used this. They would appoint administrators and create new political structures and new political elite. o Indirect→ British used this. They found local elites and co-opted them, making them more elite. (ex. The establishment of the Hashemite kingdom of Jordan) o Hands-off→ Dutch used this. o In all cases, they are backed by the implicit or explicit threat of force when necessary. Resistance could be met by brutality. o The French who directly ruled Algeria (it was part of France, not a French colony) killed many Algerians to resist their independence.
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