FEBRUARY 13, 2012:
What does it take for a third world country to be upgraded to third world? As soon
as you join the OECD you’ve entered the “north” (ex. South Korea and Chile are in
Where do we put Russia whose GNP per capita is reasonable high but whose life
expectancy is lower than Palestinian refugees in Gaza? In what category do we put
countries like Saudi Arabia or Qatar whose economies are largely sustained by one
News Story: In the Maldives there was slow motion coup which saw the elected
government pushed out by the military and people with ties to the former regime. It
was a combination of political plotting and support for security forces.
Corruption is a frequent (although not inevitable) part of neopatrimonial regimes
Some of the most corrupt countries are in Africa and East Asia.
Even within a country, corruption can vary dramatically between certain parts of a
The public perception of corruption and how often people engage in corruption are
very different. Ex) People (85%) believe that Hamas and the Palestinian territory is
very corrupt, but very few people say that they have ever paid a bribe. As political
regimes become unpopular, corruption is something that people associate with the
regime, regardless of whether there is or not.
The more political freedom and more globalization a country has there is likely less
corruption. The more free the society, the easier it is to whistle blow. (ex. No one is
Syria would run a front page headline about regime corruption). Globalization isn’t
necessarily preventing corruption; it is more likely that countries won’t want
corruption if they are working on the world stage because other countries won’t
want to invest.
o New norms and old behaviours
o New sources of wealth and power:
Growing importance of the state: corruption because more of a problem
because the state becomes more important→ now that government officials
have more to do with our lives, there is more of a benefit in bribing them.
The state is more worth bribing.
o Survival skill: Government employees may need to accept bribes because
their wages need to be supplemented to survive (this happens in countries
where structural adjustment has affects the government, countries where
there is deep debt, etc.)
ex. Egyptian government officials driving taxis to earn livelihood
o Waterbury came up with 3 categories of corruption:
Endemic corruption is everyday petty corruption by state employees taking
bribes partly because they need the money.
o Partly because they can; developmental corruption is with the emergence of
the new elites who use their new economic power to make things happen.
o Planned corruption which is when corruption is rooted in the ruling system. o There is also Clapham’s parochial corruption and extrac