FEBRUARY 8, 2012:
Informal Groups: Not all of the groups that are relevant have names, offices, etc. especially
in the developing world where things are less institutionalized.
Horizontal → “old boys” networks with disproportionate roles in societies
Individuals with the same positions in society, usually elite positions. Associations
of large landowners co-operating and acting as a lobby; army officers have personal
and political linkages of enduring importance throughout their lives; self-help soup
kitchens in an urban slum
ex) Kuwaiti vs. Jordanian business associations. Kuwaiti organization was much
more powerful because they were more exclusive and only let in powerful business
owners, whereas in Jordan it was very open, but the big business don’t want to be
bogged down by the small businesses and would lobby government privately.
Communal → ethnic, religious or secretarian groups
May have its own formalized leadership, mobilized ethnicities. “You don’t need a
membership card to be heard.” There is a sense of identity.
Vertical → patron-client relations
Vertical groups cut across social class. There is an exchange of security for support.
They are exploitative and unequal, and involve trading, support for benefits, and
may even be popular within the country.
ex) Drug cartel in Columbia would finance children’s sports teams, charitable
organization, etc. and some of the cartel leaders were more popular than the
Columbia state. The citizens then wouldn’t cooperate with the state’s narcotics
The “Glue”: How do you hold groups together?
Shared ideas may knit together a political coalition (ideology→ ideas formulated
into how society is, a blueprint or a model; political culture→ social identity,
Sources of political socialization
ex) family (ex. Strongest indicator of how you vote and other cues is how your
parents vote), peer, religion (state may try to influence this, but that is difficult
because there is a higher political cost to arresting priests than citizens, there is
already a doctrine), school (US is a model of creating a single national identity
reflected in the school system, in authoritarian societies this goes past this), work,
mass media (can be censored in authoritarian regimes, this is harder to do now→
General, diffuse benefits (as diffuse as “let’s overthrow the regime and get a
democracy,” it could be a psychological benefit from belonging to a larger group)
Specific benefits (patron-client relationships are about specific benefits)
Patron client relations + state resources = neopatrimonialism (state elites are using
resources informally to cement political support)
*they can’t secure loyalty if everyone has access to the resources (needs to be
ex) How to get running water in a rural town: applying and waiting for the
bureaucratic structure to implement it (institutional way), or you use social networking and have a personal connection with someone in democracy (informal
connections, usually family), or joining to your local MP who is a member of the
governing party and expressing your support for the regime and the MP will get you
way you want (patron-client relations with the expectation that the person will be