MARCH 21, 2012:
Coup-proofing: How can developing democracies reduce the risk of military
o Disband army (Costa Rica), weaken it (cut budget, decrease numbers)
The problem with this is that it could make the military angry and make
them want to have a coup. It is much better to do it slowly.
o Buy it off- the downside is that the military gets extra influence
o Penetrate it with loyalists (China, Soviet Union, etc.).
Syrians do this-you find a disproportionate number of the religious minority
in the army (especially the officer core).
o Intelligence apparatus (Syria- each branch in the military spies on the other
branches- this is an example of the “fox” style of neo-patrimonialism),
political officers (China), counterbalance (Saudi Arabia, which has a national
guard recruited by the most loyal people)
o Special loyalties (Jordan)
o External support (Philippines)
o Strengthen democratic institutions, civil society (Chile)
o Highlight the abuses of the past (this delegitimizes the military as a political
o Appointing people who you don’t trust to non combat positions, such as
ambassadors or logistical positions.
o Develop a civilian capacity so that you don’t rely on the military to study
military affairs- ex. A civilian defense minister or military analysts.
Demilitarization (after civil conflict)
ex) How does Libya demilitarize? There are armed militias in every city.
Demilitarization is not currently happening in Libya.
o Cantonment: the forces are disengaged, moved away from each other
o Demobilization: formally discharge them from military service
o Reintegration into civilian life so they can make the transition to being
o Other measures
Security sector reform
Dealing with small arms proliferation (arms in the hands of civilians)
Broad definition includes the violent transfer of political power, and insur