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Developing Areas Lecture Notes.docx

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McGill University
Political Science
POLI 227
Rex Brynen

The Developing World 11 What is the Developing World The world is characterized by significant economic inequalityCanada economy equal to all subSahara developing nationsTobaccoadvertising spent in US enough to cover preventable child deathsRichest country in the world in terms of per capita income Qatar TermsFirst World the western worldSecond World communist worldThird World everyone elsebecame developing countriesimplies a rank ordering Fourth Fifth the poorest of the poor North industrialized world not just northern hemisphereSouth industrializing world developing worldDeveloping World a large category equal to thirdworld problematicIndustrialized WorldNICs newly industrializing countrieshighlight the great success of countries undergoing developmentLDCs least developed countrieshighlight the least economic developmentHIPCs highly indebted poor countriesseverely economically undeveloped with a high burden of debt How to Measure DevelopmentRaw GNI GNP or GDPcapita o Variations in purchasing power does not reflect differences o Purchasing power parity PPP o Income inequality o Proportion under 1 or 2 a dayHDI o GDIgender development indexo Inequalityadjusted HDI o Developed by UNindicates the standard of living health conditions educational conditions How the mass of the population is livingRaw GNIcapitaLeast developed countries o Ethiopia280 o Haiti660 o Yemen950Lowermiddle income o China2940 o Egypt1800 o Thailand2840UpperMiddle o Chile9400 o South Korea21530Others o Often only partiallyindustrialized oilrich statesSaudi Arabia15500UAE24121 o Some East Asian entrepotsSingapore34760Hong KongChina23684PPP GNPGDP per capitaUK4439036130Mexico998014270Philippines18903900Ethiopia280870Problems with Inequality Income disparities o Canada Richest 10 earn 241 of incomePoorest 40 earn 175 of incomeGini coefficient of 0315 o BrazilRichest 10 earn 462 of incomePoorest 40 earn 81 of incomeGini coefficient of 0601Gini Coefficient is a measure of inequality ranging from 0 perfect equality to 1 complete inequalityHuman Development Index HDI measures health education and income o Highest 2011Norway 0943 o Lowest 2011Congo 0286Some countries have much lower HDI than GNP South AfricaBrazilSome countries have much higher HDI ranking than GNP some postSovietSome countries have lower GDI than HDI MiddleEastSome countries unrated because of unreliable data o High conflictaffected or highly authoritarianThree Worlds Two Many Heterogeneity of the third world o Geography o Population o Political Systems o Economic DevelopmentProblems of Definition Why draw lines or use terms and labels at all Why not o Poly 227 Introduction to the Politics of Countries starting with the letters A to DDeveloping WorldCommon CharacteristicsLower levels of economic developmentLower levels of social developmentSocialeconomic development is a low priority Weaker state structuresweaker institutionsabilitycapacity to administerPolitical instability
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