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Developing Areas Lecture Notes.docx

74 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
POLI 227
Rex Brynen

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The Developing World 1.1 What is the Developing World? The world is characterized by significant economic inequality Canada economy equal to all sub-Sahara developing nations Tobacco/advertising spent in US enough to cover preventable child deaths Richest country in the world in terms of per capita income: Qatar Terms: First World: the western world Second World: communist world Third World: everyone else became developing countries implies a rank ordering Fourth, Fifth: the poorest of the poor North: industrialized world (not just northern hemisphere) South: industrializing world (developing world) Developing World: a large category equal to third-world (problematic) Industrialized World: NICs: newly industrializing countries highlight the great success of countries undergoing development LDCs: least developed countries highlight the least economic development HIPCs: highly indebted poor countries severely economically undeveloped with a high burden of debt How to Measure Development Raw GNI, GNP or GDP/capita o Variations in purchasing power (does not reflect differences) o Purchasing power parity (PPP) o Income inequality o Proportion under $1 or $2 a day HDI o GDI gender development index o Inequality-adjusted HDI o Developed by UN indicates the standard of living (health conditions, educational conditions) How the mass of the population is living Raw GNI/capita Least developed countries o Ethiopia - $280 o Haiti - $660 o Yemen - $950 Lower-middle income o China - $2,940 o Egypt - $1,800 o Thailand - $2,840 Upper-Middle o Chile - $9,400 o South Korea - $21,530 Others o Often only partially-industrialized oil-rich states Saudi Arabia - $15,500 UAE - $24,121 o Some East Asian entrepots Singapore - $34,760 Hong Kong/China - $23,684 PPP GNP/GDP per capita UK 44,390 > 36,130 Mexico 9,980 > 14,270 Philippines 1,890 > 3,900 Ethiopia 280 > 870 Problems with Inequality Income disparities o Canada Richest 10% earn 24.1% of income Poorest 40% earn 17.5% of income Gini coefficient of 0.315 o Brazil Richest 10% earn 46.2% of income Poorest 40% earn 8.1% of income Gini coefficient of 0.601 *Gini Coefficient is a measure of inequality, ranging from 0 (perfect equality) to 1 (complete inequality) Human Development Index HDI measures health, education, and income o Highest (2011) Norway: 0.943 o Lowest (2011) Congo: 0.286 Some countries have much lower HDI than GNP (South Africa/Brazil) Some countries have much higher HDI ranking than GNP (some post-Soviet) Some countries have lower GDI than HDI (Middle-East) Some countries unrated because of unreliable data o High conflict-affected or highly authoritarian Three Worlds? Two? Many? Heterogeneity of the third world o Geography o Population o Political Systems o Economic Development Problems of Definition Why draw lines, or use terms and labels, at all? Why not: o Poly 227: Introduction to the Politics of Countries starting with the letters A to D Developing World Common Characteristics Lower levels of economic development Lower levels of social development Social/economic development is a low priority Weaker state structures/weaker institutions ability/capacity to administer Political instability Colonization national integration (borders) Distribution of economic power Imperative state building apparatus to provide governance (lack thereof) less of a challenge for first world countries Lack of international power/leverage (not applicable to large developing countries China, Brazil, India large economies) 1.2 Approaches to the Study of Third World Politics Political Scientists Analytical and descriptive Theorizing, analysis, systematic generalizations about causality Tries to link things in a causal change what leads to certain types of behavior, etc. Theorizing generalizations about social and political phenomena (simplifies reality) o Why would you use 1000 examples when you can summarize using 3 variables? o Never perfectly descriptive or predictive of the factors that way on the outcome or shape the process o They are the compromise Cannot create a situation to determine the factors leading to an outcome (experimental methodology cannot be used) Statistical methodology use statistics to determine correlation o Doesnt tell us about causation o Tells you when two things move together o Generalizability Comparative methods qualitative (not quantitative) o Interpretive conclusions Single case studies in depth (history, context, process tracing, etc.) o Contextualize outcomes Theoretical Approaches There are a variety of major sets of theoretical approaches to the study of comparative politics: o Modernization or developmental approaches o Dependency or underdevelopment approaches
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