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Oct 1st poli 244 lecture notes--.docx

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Political Science
Course Code
POLI 244
Jason Scott Ferrell

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Zoe Knowles POLI Lecture 11 1/10/12 Liberalism: -idea of interdependence -idea of spill-over as interdepence gets underway, there will be spill-over in terms of the subjects/topics that actors engage in -creation of the EU initially, EU arises as a trade agreement (ECSC? ECSD?); trying to avoid a repeat of WWI and WWII T make them economically interdependent on each other. SPILL-OVER: economic integration T political issues, legal issues, T interdependence will expand out and encompass more and more areas T foster closer ties amongst those involved -collective security: relates to the issue of war: how does liberalism regard war? -the superficial/basic assumption that as interdependence increases, war become less attractive as an option ~Commercial Liberalism & where there is a cost benefit cooperation. T What you gain from war is not worth the cost of war. -KEEP IN MIND: as actors converge upon certain expectations in their relations, the traditional ideas about security need to change. -think about how constructivism and liberalism overlap: especially in areas of/about how we think of security -collective security becomes the goal of these sorts of issues: we provide security through collective security -actors are states with shared interests in a secure/stable world. -cooperation potentially extends to security issues as well. -along these lines: liberal view: security is a mutually shared interest for all actors, (rather than the realist view of a discreet interest / one interest per each individual country T I can’t rely on you to help me achieve my interests) T actors have a reason for banding together against aggressive states. -collective security: forming broad alliance for the purpose of jointly opposing an aggressor -realist idea: form an alliance for BALANCE -everybody has an interest in security and in defending security -collective security is associated with all variations of liberalism. NOTE: for liberals, cooperation extends to security issues. Security is a mutual interest. -T even the provision of security is to be understood as a collective good. -from a realist POV: security is NOT a collective good. Constructivism: Social Constructivism: 1. the idea of society: idea of norms, identity, and society and socialization. -society can be seen as a set of social norms about what is appropriate behaviour. -convergence/come together with liberalism: constructivists analogy: domestic level politics and int’l level politics are there shared norms of behaviour at the int’l level? -idea of order: order is NOT achieved by balancing or by reciprocity T order is achieved through Zoe Knowles POLI Lecture 11 1/10/12 -norms specify what is socially acceptable behaviour T norms tell us what we should be doing and seeking -norms constitute interests -constructivists define interests on the basis of what is socially appropriate OR what can be understood as what’s right or what’s wrong. T norms are not only a means to an end, BUT RATHER norms define the ends that we pursue! -can explain how change can take place BUT some of constructivists’ explanations are circular. ambiguous sense of what norms are. -society is NOT composed of a set of individuals that are competing with each other (like in realism) AND NOT that individuals are slightly indifferent to each other (like in liberalism) mutually disinterested individuals society consists of actors that have bonds and obligations to one another T there is a distinction they draw that society is ultimately about self- restraint when striving toward a collective goal -along these lines social norms are interest objective (they are shared among actors) -society defines appropriate behaviour by providing us with our appropriate identities -constructivists don’t really ask: what do I need to do to get what I want BUT RATHER they ask: what is the appropriate thing for me to desire? T there’s a different emphasis -they indicate that interaction with others helps us determine what is appropriate for us to want issue of socialization: socialized into our identities and interests -along these lines: specific mechanism that they highlight is important for socialization: mechanism is the imitation actors imitate one another and in the process of imitating one another they provide the norms that dictate the appropriateness of interests this is true of individuals and also of states states mimic each other in their behaviour ther
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