Zoe Knowles POLI Lecture 11 1/10/12
-idea of interdependence
-idea of spill-over as interdepence gets underway, there will be spill-over in terms of
the subjects/topics that actors engage in
-creation of the EU initially, EU arises as a trade agreement (ECSC? ECSD?);
trying to avoid a repeat of WWI and WWII T make them economically
interdependent on each other. SPILL-OVER: economic integration T political
issues, legal issues,
T interdependence will expand out and encompass more and more areas T foster closer
ties amongst those involved
-collective security: relates to the issue of war: how does liberalism regard war?
-the superficial/basic assumption that as interdependence increases, war become
less attractive as an option ~Commercial Liberalism & where there is a cost
benefit cooperation. T What you gain from war is not worth the cost of war.
-KEEP IN MIND: as actors converge upon certain expectations in their relations, the
traditional ideas about security need to change.
-think about how constructivism and liberalism overlap: especially in areas of/about how
we think of security
-collective security becomes the goal of these sorts of issues: we provide security through
-actors are states with shared interests in a secure/stable world.
-cooperation potentially extends to security issues as well.
-along these lines: liberal view: security is a mutually shared interest for all actors,
(rather than the realist view of a discreet interest / one interest per each individual
country T I can’t rely on you to help me achieve my interests) T actors have a
reason for banding together against aggressive states.
-collective security: forming broad alliance for the purpose of jointly opposing an
-realist idea: form an alliance for BALANCE
-everybody has an interest in security and in defending security
-collective security is associated with all variations of liberalism.
NOTE: for liberals, cooperation extends to security issues. Security is a mutual interest.
-T even the provision of security is to be understood as a collective good.
-from a realist POV: security is NOT a collective good.
1. the idea of society: idea of norms, identity, and society and socialization.
-society can be seen as a set of social norms about what is appropriate
-convergence/come together with liberalism: constructivists analogy:
domestic level politics and int’l level politics are there shared norms of
behaviour at the int’l level?
-idea of order: order is NOT achieved by balancing or by reciprocity T
order is achieved through Zoe Knowles POLI Lecture 11 1/10/12
-norms specify what is socially acceptable behaviour T norms tell us what
we should be doing and seeking
-norms constitute interests
-constructivists define interests on the basis of what is socially appropriate
OR what can be understood as what’s right or what’s wrong. T norms are
not only a means to an end, BUT RATHER norms define the ends that we
-can explain how change can take place BUT some of constructivists’
explanations are circular. ambiguous sense of what norms are.
-society is NOT composed of a set of individuals that are competing with
each other (like in realism) AND NOT that individuals are slightly
indifferent to each other (like in liberalism) mutually disinterested
society consists of actors that have bonds and obligations to one another
T there is a distinction they draw that society is ultimately about self-
restraint when striving toward a collective goal
-along these lines social norms are interest objective (they are
shared among actors)
-society defines appropriate behaviour by providing us with our
-constructivists don’t really ask: what do I need to do to get what I want
BUT RATHER they ask: what is the appropriate thing for me to desire? T
there’s a different emphasis
-they indicate that interaction with others helps us determine what is
appropriate for us to want
issue of socialization: socialized into our identities and interests
-along these lines: specific mechanism that they highlight is important for
socialization: mechanism is the imitation actors imitate one another and
in the process of imitating one another they provide the norms that dictate
the appropriateness of interests
this is true of individuals and also of states states mimic each other in
their behaviour ther