Why the central argument is wrong?
• Pattern not unique to region (Germany, Japan)
• rationalization : elite vs mass culture : elites would benefit with this
1.J.S.Mill. Why would the common person buy into this?
2.Parallels with racism :
3.20th c. military regimes use it for legitimacy
• Ignores power and lower class responses.
what the good form of government is? (no consensus till now), stake of
The long term structural impact of colonialism
• massive disruption of indigenous societies : equivalent of genocide,
inevitable effect. (Morales in Bolivia : indigenous pride) . Poorest
people are indigenous
• concentration of wealth and power
1.land tenure patterns : conquistadors got the fertile land, gave infertile to
2.human face of exploitation : large landowners (latifundistas). Sets Latin
America apart from the rest of the world, people know who is
exploiting them and why
• subordinate insertion in international system
1.export primary products, import higher value goods. Commodities
determine the income of Latin Americans. e.g. China : affects Latin
America more than US. Influence of China on commodity prices that
in many ways its future determines Latin America's future.
2.parallels with Spain : roots of independent struggle reflected Spain and
Portugal's economic decline. People in new world could not depend
on these countries. Spain also continuing to live with legacy well
into the 20th c.
• Segmentation of citizenship :
1.conquistadors as the highest in hierarchy, a different group
2.criollos, more divisions.
3.inequality (Morales introduces a new level of equality)
Latin America's Social pyramid
• social class and the stakes in politics : creates interests, marks whats
2.defining social class (Marx : who owns the means of production?
problematic : would not get very far in Latin America, two main
classes), (Alejandro Portes : 3 criter