Populism : causes and emergence
• mobilization of poor people by a small number of elites
• people who follow these populist leaders tend to worse off : leaders win
majority with false hopes
• alternative : citizenship as agency
1.capacity of different groups to organize their interests and define and
various ways in which this takes places : civil society, social movements
women, catholic church
• eco crisis creates a paradox of women's participation
1.women tend to lose their jobs, unable to support families.
2.men are unable to fulfil their traditional role
3.it all falls on women to maintain the household
4.men resort to drugs and violence
5.abandoning family is rare
6.paradox : to assume these responsibilities, they begin to move outside
their traditional role in order to fulfil the role (handicraft workshops,
etc community self help organizations to help women gather few
resources to cope with eco crisis)
7.what happens when women do this : things begin to change in the home
(tensions etc). Women have a more important role that men are
forced to recognize
8.if the tensions can be worked, relationships between partners become
equal. Greater peace and equality
9.women have a new sense of efficacy
10. beginning of consciousness : women realize that they situation they
are confronting is political (women begin to realize that the problem
is more general). This consciousness combined with efficacy and
responsibility results in greater social mobilization of women.
Women become spearhead of transitions to democracy because
they realize that its the only way to have a better life. Larger
movements, with democracy they become politicians.
Actors in Latin American Politics II : The Church
• if religion is excluded, we lose out a lot
• Latin America has been changing a lot : social modernization, Cuban
revolution, christian democracy (catholic), radicalization of left
• these changes put church into a precarious position : historically a pillar
of hierarchy and inequality
• it raised the danger of church becoming irrelevant
• this challenge met through liberation theology : church became a social
critic. Instead of working for the status quo, it had to work with the
poor to achieve real change, had to become defender of human
rights, supporting democracy creation.
Liberation theology :
• people needed to be liberated from oppression
1.a sociological definition of poverty : looks at society in class terms,
poverty stemming from structures. Before this, focus was on poverty of the spirit. But now, poverty takes on a collective dimension.
Structural poverty. Societies are conflictual.
2.church has to redirect it s foci away from the afterlife to temporal
issues : these societies need to be changed and focussing now what
needs to be done today also rejects the traditional passivity
3.preference/option for poor : poor need to be favoured by church to
4.this preference for the poor reflects preference by god because they
have been wronged by the society : needs to be fixed today
• democratic qualities : everyone has something to contribute.
1.P.Friere : made people learn how to read and write (people recount