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Lecture

POLI 322 oct 26.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLI 322
Professor
Narendra Subramanian

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POLI 322 – Lecture Notes October 26, 2012 CAUSES OF ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION AND ITS TIMING -changes in international scene  decline of Soviet bloc, rise of neo-liberalism -changes among domestic actors  politicians, bureaucrats, industrialists, trade unions -state strategies to contain resistance  reform in stages  devolution to state governments -opposition to reform  social movements without links to policy-making -large egalitarian/redistributive state -it became increasingly evident that the commitment was more to a large state than to egalitarianism  especially access to patronage -trade unions were mobilized against liberalization -different kinds of anti-strike legislation accompanied liberalization -seemed like this set of interests might continue to block reform -changes on the international scene: decline of communist regimes -not a direct impact on India -even alternative forms of state regulation were (at least for a while) in retreat -in many countries, the alternative was neo-liberalism -ideological move did not make all countries move toward economic liberalization -high levels of industrial growth as well -effected enough groups so that after a few years, voters rallied behind political alternatives for a return to greater state regulation (e.g. Venezuela, Argentina, Nicaragua) -not enough to just point to the decline of communist regimes -various domestic actors began to recalculate their interests -domestic business groups/upper middle classes -less wary of what they would lose in the process; took more risks -trade unions remained opposed to liberalization, but were in slow decline  didn’t have the clout to prevent it -in addition, Jenkins emphasizes the strategy of the state in containing internal opposition -liberalized the economy in stages -when any one party was in power, there were a range of state that were ruled by other parties -deals were struck with multi-national corporations -different parties were involved in implementing the reforms -through changes in the parties in power, economic policy didn’t change much -there was some opposition to the reforms -but much of this opposition came from social movements and interest groups -majority of these organizations were not affiliated with political parties -policy was partly insulated from opposition and public opinion -no electoral party systematically opposed the reforms WOMEN AND LAND RIGHTS -gendered nature of land rights -constraints to women’s mobilization for land rights -some instances of women’s mobilization for land control -policymakers have seen the household as the main relevant property of the women -land redistribution largely involved redistribution to households rather than individuals -but women didn’t have equal access to land GENDERED NATUR OF LAND RIGHTS -legal land rights and effective land control -regional variations in land rights:  greater in south and east (Sri Lanka, S. & E. India, Maldives, perhaps Bangladesh and Bhutan)  less in north and west (Pakistan, N. & W. India, Nepal) -determinants of women’s land rights:  inheritance (patrilineal vs. bilateral vs. matrilineal)  marriage alliances (village and kin exogamy/endogamy)  post-marital residence (patrilocal/matrilocal/nuclear) -situation is dramatized when women from well off families suddenly become poor because of divorce, becoming widows, etc. -rule of thumb is that in south and east, women are better off than in north and west -doesn’t directly correlate to state boundaries -Muslim majority regi
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