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POLI 322 sept 28.docx

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Political Science
POLI 322
Narendra Subramanian

POLI 322 – Lecture Notes September 28, 2012 LEGACIES OF PAKISTAN MOVEMENT AND PARTITION -forced migration -Muslim League, national identity weak -varied expectations of postcolonial period -public role of religion in Pakistan uncertain -decline in status of Indian Muslims -association between state boundaries and religious boundaries -Pakistan was created at the last minute; contributing factor to lack of national identity -contributed to part of the country splitting off in 1971 to form Bangladesh -after independence, Muslim League became dominant party in Pakistan, as did Congress in India -Muslim League became a mass organization relatively late in its history -didn’t have strong party institutions -had been stronger for longer in Muslim minority reasons which remained in India -even its leaders were mostly people who migrated from what became India to what became Pakistan -so the leaders had shallow roots in the country -contributed to the party disintegrating relatively quickly -Pakistan movement was such that the status of religion was unstable -when Jinnah took over he said he wanted to create a secular state -however, the League had gained support from various groups who wanted focus to be on certain religious groups -sharp decline in the Muslim share of the population in India  went from about 28% to 11% -Muslims did not gain much in socioeconomic power -in some regions of India, it even declined further as a result of discrimination from state officials -tensions between religious groups and tensions between these 2 neighbouring countries -some talk nostalgically about other possible outcomes had India and Pakistan not partitioned -those who feel this way in Pakistan have very different view from those who feel that way in India AUTHORITARIANISM IN PAKISTAN: OVERVIEW -periods of outright authoritarian rule: 1958-71, 1977-88, 1999-2008 -periods of civilian rule (semi-democracy): 1947-58, 19771-77, 1988-99, 2008-12 -some of the time elections were held but they were not entirely free elections -lots of opponents didn’t participate in these elections -through the periods of civilian rule, the experiences varied -1947-58: no elections  1947-51: elections were held based on about 20% of the adult population being able to vote; Muslim League won a majority  1951-58: wasn’t even elected leaders who were most powerful; it was unelected bureaucrats who became the governor generals (and in some cases military generals)  1954: elections were held for state assemblies, but governments that were established were dismissed in less than 2 years -1971-77: about as democratic as Pakistan got  ran by Pakistan People’s Party (established after the decline of the Muslim League)  Came to power in not the most straightforward way  1970 elections: 2 parties did very well (Awami League did well in East, PPP did well in West)  Awami League won overall  But by 1971 PPP had the majority  elections in 1977 were rigged; signified that things weren’t in fact so democratic -1988-99: elected governments came to power  however, an unelected president originally had some authority to dismiss governments  no government stayed in power for its full period in office  popular engagement with democracy weakened, voter turnout declined, and civil rights were violated -2008-12: elections were held by previous dictatorship  elected national assembly put pressure on the current president and got him to leave  elected officials came to power  future of the regime is still uncertain REASONS FOR EMERGENCE OF FIRST DICTATORSHIP -colonial experience of autocracy/representative government -party weakness -approach to state-building -foreign aid channeled through bureaucracy and military -selective ethnic inclusion -indecision over basic features of polity -under colonial rule, West Pakistan was one of the last regions that the British colonized -British were very aware of a competition with Russians over getting various regions of what’s now Pakistan/Afghanistan -being aware of this competition, the British made their governance in regions which are now Pakistan very authoritative and militant -much more of Pakistan was composed of princely states where elections were not conducted -most of the power was concentrated in West Pakistan -Muslim League had a short history and weaker roots -less cohesion -didn’t help that soon after independence Jinnah died -much harder to consolidate the Muslim League as a political power -most of the major state institutions were inherited by India rather than Pakistan  Delhi was the capital of India, so India inherited the buildings etc. that were in the capital -there was more work to be done in Pakistan than in India -what made a difference was which institutions took to state building -in Pakistan, since parties were w
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