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POLI 322 sept 26.docx

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Political Science
POLI 322
Narendra Subramanian

POLI 322 – Lecture Notes September 26, 2012 THE DEMAND FOR PAKISTAN -partition/secession -ambiguous: autonomy or separate country -relation to Indian nationalism -colonial polity and Pakistan demand -cases of successful secession were instance where secession happened when there were regime changes -demand for Pakistan emerged relatively late -it was unclear whether people wanted an autonomous region within India or a separate country -religious idioms were commonly used; to some Hindus, it seemed that their important regions were being considered afterthoughts -Gandhi was assassinated for being “too soft” on Muslims, and “too soft” on Pakistan -within the Congress party there were many Hindus who discriminated against Muslims -there were separate electorates introduced for Muslims and some other groups in 1909 -the state periodically gave support to certain causes of the Muslim league  later came to support the Pakistan movement -these things didn’t necessarily lead to the Pakistan movement -other religious groups were recognized other than Muslims -religious politics didn’t have to assume the role of asking for a separate country -separate electorates gave political recognition to membership in the Muslim community -but they encouraged as much competition within Muslim community for these positions as solidarity -movement didn’t get going until right toward the end of colonial rule MUSLIM POLITICS UNTIL 1937 -diversity of demands and movements -emergence of Pakistan demand -Muslim League in 1937 -politics in Muslim-majority provinces  cross-communal alliances (Bengal: Krishak Praja Party, Punjab: Unionist Party)  ethno-nationalisms (NWFP, Kashmir) -Muslims around India were divided -until the 1930s, the majority of Indian Muslims supported neither the Muslim league nor a movement for Pakistan -for some people who thought of the formation of Pakistan, Bengal was marginal to that region -one reason why a movement emerged later to form a separate country in East Pakistan -early visions were being put forth by people who didn’t have much mass support/political power -e.g. poets -1936: Congress Party and Muslim League competed in elections -Muslims did very poorly; only about 5% of the Muslims who voted supported the Muslim League -in the provinces in which Muslims constituted a minority, the Congress Party did much better -in provinces were Muslims were a majority, parties other than the Congress Party or the Muslim League came out on top -appeared that the Muslim League was failing -KPP was somewhat more radical; based upon groups in smaller towns -stood for some forms of land reform -its support was strongest among middle league groups -Unionist Party was more of a farmers’ party; included people from different religious groups -NWFP: had an alliance with the Congress Party -Kashmir (princely state): support mainly from Kashmiri Muslims, but also had some support for Hindus in Kashmir -some incentives to mobilize Muslims -also provincial governance; in multi-religious provinces, there was incentive to build support across these religious groups -1946: Muslim League had grown substantially -they had committed themselves to the demand for Pakistan  still wasn’t clear whether or not it would be its own country though -at this point they got about 75% of the vote -Muslim Conference changed its name to the National Conference COALITION BUILDING FOR PAKISTAN -secular and religious understandings -alliances with religious elites  Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act -alliances with regional political elites  Bengal, Punjab -if Pakistan were to be a separate country, it would need to be secular -would need to include regions where Muslims were not the majority -there were many Hindus in Pakistan -Indian state had an incentive to treat its Muslims better so that Pakistan would have an incentive to treat its Hindus better -way of life of Hindus and Muslims made it difficult for them to live in the same country -this justified the request for the formation of Pakistan -there were people who associated the idea of Pakistan with symbols of Islamic fate -e.g. the word “Pakistan” meant “land of the pure” -this suggested that there was a connection between a sense of membership in the religious community and the support of Pakistan -Muslim League was created as a means of mass organization -figured if they wanted to have a realistic chance, they needed to do a better job of getting mass support -1937: Jinam was at the forefront of pushing for the Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act  religious norms rat
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