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Lecture

POLI 322 oct 10.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLI 322
Professor
Narendra Subramanian

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POLI 322 – Lecture Notes October 10, 2012 -midterm: covers material up to and including formation of Bangladesh  80 minutes (2:35 – 3:55) SIGNIFICANCE -only secession between WWII and 1989 -unfavourable circumstances:  initial enthusiasm about parent state  parent state in control of seceding region  no collapse of parent state  parent state determined to prevent secession -favourable condition: neighbour state open to military intervention -seemed to be widespread support for formation of Pakistan in area which would come to be Bengal -those who opposed it left the region, so opposition declined -other regions in South Asia where there was reluctance to join the new states in which they were incorporated (e.g. Kashmir, NWFP) -conditions that seemed more favourable to secession in these regions -parent state was in control of the region until the last minute -Pakistani state had managed to establish control in East Bengal -parent state hadn’t collapsed; it wasn’t like the communist regime of the former Soviet Union -it was determined to prevent secession -wasn’t a situation where 2 units were willing to go separate ways and there was no resistance -major favourable condition: India was willing to support secession  not just support it, but even invade and get involved in the war -India’s invasion wouldn’t have happened and wouldn’t have led to secession if there hadn’t been widespread support for secession in Bangladesh HISTORICAL BACKGROUND TO AUTONOMISM -Pakistan Movement’s ambiguous status in Bengal  initially weak  grew strong in 1940s by promising autonomy -sources of discontent with Pakistani regime  inadequate Bengali incorporation in elite  unequal economic relations with West Pakistan  language policy  dismissal of Bengali Nationalist Coalition Government  limited provincial autonomy -the imposition of authoritarian rule closed of the electoral route to political power -by the late 1960s, the world market for jut declined -this made the economic situation worse in East Bengal -1954: coalition of Bengali nationalist parties was elected to govern East Bengal -Awami League was formed at the same time, and would later lead the movement to form Bangladesh -by 1955 the government was dismissed (as were the state governments in Pakistan) BENGALAUTONOMISM: ORANIZATIONS AND DEMANDS -main organizations:  Awami League; leader = Mujib-ur-Rehman  Krishak Sramik Party; leader: Fazul-ul-Haq -main demands:  Bengali as additional national language  increased representation in state institutions  considerable autonomy  retention of foreign exchange in East Pakistan  separate paramilitary/military forces for provinces  equalization of East-West economic relations  democratization -1965: 2 goals; adding Bengali as a national language, and giving it increased representation in state institutions -after 1965, opposition grew -East Pakistan: movement was led by nationalist groups, led by the Awami League -demand for federalism, establishment of clear relations for provincial autonomy -wanted everything except defence and foreign affairs to be provincial -wanted the foreign exchange generated through exports to be retained in East Bengal  by means of either 2 types of currencies or 2 separate accounts -sometimes autonomous movements make such demands because they really want secession but fear repression if they demand that, so they demand something just short of that -other movements will demand a lot but be willing to negotiate for much less -between 1965 and 1970, chances are the majority of Awami League leaders were aware that they were unlikely to get all their demands and were willing to negotiate -1970: first national elections, Awami League swept the East (won all but 2 seats), and since East Pakistan had just more than 50% of the population, Awami League had an overall national majority -having won the majority of seats, they had a shot at ruling the country as a whole, or sharing the power by means of a coalition -a share of power at the national level might make them back off from the extent of autonomy they demanded for the provinces -some West Pakistani elites hoped this would happen -however, the majority of the bureaucracy and military in the old regime and the new elected leaders demanded of the Awami League to not push for so much autonomy OP
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