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POLI 322 sept 21.docx

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Political Science
POLI 322
Narendra Subramanian

POLI 322 – Lecture Notes September 21, 2012 INDIAN NATIONALIST MOVEMENT -colonial political institutions and nationalism -ideological and strategic problems of anti-colonial nationalism -Gandhian nationalism and colonial rule -ideological pluralism  other approaches in movement: Nehru -movement’s legacies COLONIAL POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS AND NATIONALISM -colonial political institutions:  authoritarian: bureaucracy in command, princely states  democratic: representative institutions  urged non-violent strategy -Indian nationalist strategy: non-violent civil disobedience -newspapers that supported the colonial state were patronized -Indian nationalist engaged with some democratic features of the Indian polity -engaged with newspapers to the extent that they could -participated in representative institutions -very successful mass mobilization anti-colonialism movement -became a mass movement, mainly after WWI, through a period when Ghandi led the movement -under his leadership, the movement adopted a strategy of non-violent civil disobedience -generally believed that there was a connection between non-violent mobilization and the success in gaining mass support -where colonial states had less democratic features, there was more a tendency for violence IDEOLOGICALAND STRATEGIC PROBLEMS -ideological dilemma: be culturally authentic and modern -strategic task: mobilize vs. strong colonial state -Indian nationalism: inclusive mass movement -had to be authentic of national culture -if a group wanted to be accepted as a nation on the world stage, it had to be modern in some sense -dominant understandings of modernity came from colonial powers -reconciling the demands of cultural authenticity and modernity was more a problem in the colonies -more conservative colonialists believed that colonies always needed the leadership and rule of colonial powers -more liberal colonialists felt that there was room for change -representative institutions in South Asia were supposed to make groups more capable of responsible political participation -the dominant colonial story was that it was tough to be both culturally authentic and modern -so the challenge for nationalists was to present an authentic and reformed national culture which had enough connections to the past societies but was also attuned to the future -2 major factions in Indian nationalist movement: a) moderates – focused on modernization factor off the issue  did not give as much attention to mass mobilization b) extremists – gave more attention to cultural mobilization  were more open to the use of violence -Gandhi became the most important leader shortly after WWI -believed that he brought together aspects of the moderate view and aspects of the extremist view -he played the politics of cultural authenticity I a particular way -he presented a strong alternative to dominant understandings of modernity -strategic dilemma was that they faced a strong colonial state with strong repressive powers -his discouraged people from coming out onto the streets -there were democratic features to colonial rule and some changes which could benefit some people -so there was some room for various groups to feel that their interests would best be served by avoiding conflict with colonial rule -so if Indian nationalists wanted to mobilize people, they had to convince people that the colonia state was not satisfactory and could not satisfy some of their basic demands -generally believed that Gandhi’s adoption of the non-violent civil disobedience was key in convincing people to join forces with them GANDHI AND INDIAN NATIONALISM -cultural nationalism  anti-modernist (vs. machine, market, medicine, law)  based in Indian spirituality, yet universally relevant  Swaraj, satyagraha -response to strategic problems:  non-violent civil disobedience  participation in colonial institutions  build Indian National Congress (Congress Party) -alternative was rooted in pre-colonial Indian history -he made universal claims for this alternative -said it represented a spirituality common to all world religions -so a lesson for British and everyone else His views on modernity: -industrialization (machine) enslaves people and makes people incapable of making things for themselves and dependence on the machine -undermines the value of labour -even introduces an aversion to labour -other side of the mechanization of production is the growth of consumers -consumers multiply wants and make people more dependent on the machine and thus less autonomous as individuals -so he was also against the market -many believed that one of the advantages of the Industrial Revolution was the improved health care system -he argued that Western healthcare systems don’t promote viable forms of everyday life, but rather encourage you to stuff yourself with things that can ruin your health (so that the medical sector can jump in) -so contemporary medicine was not the best way to lead healthy lives -believed that lawyers were only in it to make money -representative government worked much like legal institutions; politicians have a stake in gaining popular support -based on such a far-reaching critique of modernity, he pointed towards an alternative which had something to do with history, but also something to do with all world religions -satyagraha: path of truth -swaraj: self-rule -he said that if Indians replaced the British in power a
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