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Political Science
POLI 322
Narendra Subramanian

Poli 322. Formation of bangla: Jalal: definitions States and social classes imp for jalal Generally: states and classes matter but in actual story she tells, she gives more imp to elected elites and non elected institutions. She emphasisez their roles in state formation. - Dem and auth continuous variables - Formal and substantive democ o Formal democ: relative power – elected vs. non elected institutions. Adult franchise and regular elections. Jalal gives more imp to popular decisions by elected officials. o Substantive democ: peoples autonomy from structures of dominanace. Capacity of people to resist and renegotiate power relations with state authorities dominant social groups. How much power do lil ppl have. Ususal def of dem: universal adult franchise, regular elections, control by popular elected leaders over public decision making rather then bearueacrats or unelected military or other leaders. And civil rights. Democ is 2 fold for jalal. Some times countries may have social groups have low power while there are good institutions. Basically you need formal democ to get substantive democ Authoritarianism: jala defines it as organized power embedded in institutional structure of the state. So wherever you have a strong central state with a lot of power  you will have some authoritarianism Overt authoritarianism  exists wherever there are centralized states. Best outcome  Covert authoritarianism  from military For jalal its not democ most of the time in india vs authoritarianism in pak or bangla For her the outcome is: India  formal democ but some amount of overt authoritarianism Pak  elements of formal democ at times with
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