Formation of bangla:
States and social classes imp for jalal
Generally: states and classes matter but in actual story she tells, she gives more imp to elected
elites and non elected institutions. She emphasisez their roles in state formation.
- Dem and auth continuous variables
- Formal and substantive democ
o Formal democ: relative power – elected vs. non elected institutions. Adult
franchise and regular elections. Jalal gives more imp to popular decisions by
o Substantive democ: peoples autonomy from structures of dominanace. Capacity
of people to resist and renegotiate power relations with state authorities dominant
social groups. How much power do lil ppl have.
Ususal def of dem: universal adult franchise, regular elections, control by popular
elected leaders over public decision making rather then bearueacrats or unelected
military or other leaders. And civil rights.
Democ is 2 fold for jalal. Some times countries may have social groups have low power
while there are good institutions. Basically you need formal democ to get substantive
Authoritarianism: jala defines it as organized power embedded in institutional structure of
the state. So wherever you have a strong central state with a lot of power you will have
Overt authoritarianism exists wherever there are centralized states. Best outcome
Covert authoritarianism from military For jalal its not democ most of the time in india vs authoritarianism in pak or bangla
For her the outcome is:
India formal democ but some amount of overt authoritarianism
Pak elements of formal democ at times with