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Political Science
POLI 322
Narendra Subramanian

POLI 322 4/2/14 4:01 PM Lecture 1: Peoples and Cultures in South East Asia • 7 major Countries in S.E Asia India à 1.2 Billion population (17% of the worlds population) Pakistan Bangladesh Nepal Sri Lanka Bhutan Maldives • Geographyà somewhat cordoned off by the rest of the world by a discontinuous mountain range (the Himalayas) and seas. Links with other regions happened through mountains, seas, conquests and trade. More recently in historical times, this region was ruled by the British. British rule started in the eastern regions in the mid 18th th th century and consolidated in the mid 19 century and lasted till the 20 century. • British rule in S.A distinguishes it from other regions. • Some features of South Asia: -High share of world population -Poverty à has the largest total number of poor people in the world. The world bank estimated that about 600 million people in SA is poor, based on income. Anyone who lives on $1.25 is poor. By this standard, some 43% of the worlds poor live in SA. The largest number of middle- classed people also live there. -Cultural diversityà much difference in terms of religion, sect, caste, region, language, extensive cultural differences, varied social life, ongoing cultural exchange. -Sustained Democracyà SA has seen sustained democracy for a reasonable amount of time esp. in India and Sri Lanka since they became independent. In Sri Lanka, elected governments have been in power all the time except for when there was a major civil war in the country. -Ethnic and Religious Politicsà region in which ethnic and religious politics have been strong for a fair amount of time. • Peoples and Cultures of South Asia There are quite a few cultural variations: th When centralized states were formed in the 18 century, cultures on the ground remained more fluid than states imagined them to me. In some ways, if governments stuck people in various cultural boxes, sometimes people came to see themselves as belonging in those boxes. In societies in SA, where colonial rulers played a key role in forming centralized states, that played a key role in the formation and consolation of cultures. They felt culture was a major way in which they had to understand in order to govern colonized societies. Census is an important way in which states try to take into account the various socio-economic activities. In former colonies, censuses gave colonies more power. -Religion à more important basis of classification in colonial India than the way in which censuses took place in Britain. The more people were classified on a religious basis, the more they began to see themselves as belonging to exclusive categories. Such forms of classification of people encourage social movements in political parties to mobilize members of particular religious groups, sects, castes etc. -Language -Caste • An important cultural difference is that of religion. Hindus and Muslims account for a majority of cultural groups. Hindus are more concentrated in some statesà India and Nepal. They are a significant miniroty in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Bhutan. • Muslims are vast majority in Pakistan, Bangladesh. • Christians are a minority of the population in significant states but they account for a majority of population in northern India and Sri Lanka. • Buddhists are a majority in Sri Lanka and Bhutan. A minority in Bhutan and other countries. • In the case of Sri Lanka, no censuses were conducted there in the 1990’s. • In Bangladesh, 10% Hindus and 90% Muslims. • In Pakistan, there are 95 % because a minority sect, Ahmedis are not incorporated. There is pressure on government to take into account both majorities and minorities. • Among the countries of S.A the accommodation of minorities goes furthest in India, which claims to be a secular state, with a Hindu touch. • Minorities are least accommodated in Bhutan and Nepal where their governments are theocratic. • in Sri Lanka and Bangladeshà conflict between the minorities and majorities and within these groups • In Pakistan and the Maldivesà the relationship between religious groups is not an important part of government. • Formulation of Religious groups: Hinduism: This term is used to refer to loosely related belief systems of S.Asian origin. The term Hindu is used to refer to people who are not part of a major religion in India -Islam: entered S.A through trade, migration, conquest and conversion. Came through from the Arab world and Central Asia(land route) into Southern India. Christianity: came through two wavesà through the Arabian Sea along the West coast and then through European colonization. Buddhism and Sikhism emerged as alternatives to Hindu practices of caste system and ritualism. Buddhism was influential in many parts of India and Nepal. Buddhism has had a minor rebirth in India more recently. • Religion and National identity -Majority religion associated with national identity-officially and unofficially -Pakistan, Maldives, Bangladesh: Islam -Nepal: Hindu -Sri Lanka, Bhutan: Buddhism -India: official secularism; yet, Hindu touch th à Lecture 2: January 14 ’ 14 à Language groups • India: multi-polar;14 major groups; largest: Hindi (25% to 41%); others: 1% to 8% • Pakistan: multi-polar;5 major groups: largest: Punjabi (48% to 58%). (Sindhi, Urdu, Pushto and Balochi) • Bangladesh: unipolar, Bengali (98%) • Nepal: multi-polar; Nepali (48%) dominant • Sri Lanka: bipolar; Sinhala (74%), Tamil (25%) • Bhutan: bipolar; Bhote dialects (50%) à official language of National Government • India: Hindi (41%) and English. Constitution recognizes 26 languages. The main opposition to replace Hindi with English came from Southern India. A loose compromise was released. The national government continued to use English even when claiming Hindi was the sole language of administration. Job prospects in the government made a huge difference because language was very important there. South India and in North-East India on the border with Indiaà was a lot of opposition towards language policy. • Pakistan: Urduà Official language of Pakistan because Native Urdu Speakers whose ancestors lived in north central India led the movement for Pakistan. Made the difference that although Punjabis don’t claim Urdu as their native language, but they have willingly adopted Urdu. (8% claim it to be their native language; 4%, 1947-71). Punjabis are the language group with the majority. • Bangladesh: Bengali (98%) • Nepali (48%). Dominant and sole language of administration. • Sri Lanka: Initially Sinhala (74%) and then Tamil as well (25%) since 1978. Sri Lanka freedom party in 1956 wanted to replace English with Sinhalese. Two major languages are the two languages of administration. • Bhutan: Dzhongkha/Bhote (50%) • Maldives: Dhivehi (100%) • Most contentious: Bipolar (Sri Lanka, Bhutan) & Multi-polar (Pakistan, India) societies. • Decisions over language polities were most conflicting where there were two or more large language groups e.g Pakistan and Sri Lanka. In Pakistan, among Benglis and Sri Lanka among the Tamil speaking community. • In countries such as Bangladesh and the Maldives where there is only one dominant language, there is little or no conflict over language policy. à Caste and social structure • Static view à static and hierarchal society. Many British and European scholars saw caste as a fundamental aspect of South Asian culture. This suggests there are hierarchal features in caste and has expressed itself that are not contrary to equalization. • what is missing in static view • changes under colonial rule • post-colonial society: Political mobilization, official recognition of caste and caste & social dominance • Understanding Caste requires an understanding of Hindu texts: Varna and Jati. It is a loosely related set of beliefs and practices (of worship esp) that evolved in SA over the centuries. It is a fairly rigid basis for social organization based on world view with a lot of social constraints. • Caste is basis for social and ritual status having to do with notions of ritual purity and pollution…what kind of religious practices you can engage in. Whether you can learn Sanskrit, enter social spaces esp. temples, occupation of your ancestors that you have to follow, social and ritual rights and obligations, who has the right to enter temples, own land, who may have access to the better sources of water, channels coming from major rivers. • Caste is a basis on which some groups are expected to do unpaid labor • Two terms that get translated as castes: • Varna (means color and pigment) Peoples varna and their pigment has a very uncertain relationship: -Brahman (priests; landlords) -Kshatriya (warriors; landlords) -Vaishya (traders) -Shudra (workers;peasants, artisans) -Panchama/avarna (untouchable; agricultural workers & other low- status occupations) • Jati à thousands of jatis. More closely tied to specific occupations…whose a barber or a drumbeater etc. -Endogamous (They are groups within which people are supposed to marry) /hypergamous (the man may marry someone belonging to the same group or to a lower status women but it cannot happen vise versa) units. -Many groups have a stronger identity of their jati status than their varna status -in Northern and western India, there is a closer link between varna and jati à Untouchability • Involves a variety of social and economic restrictions • lower caste groups live in segregated areas in urban and rural areas • excluded from temples, access to wells, residential areas of higher- caste members • Not expected to use umbrellas, wear shoes etc. • Labor and service obligations towards landlords and temples • Frequency of violence and sexual abuse • Untouchability literal in some regions… had to cleanse themselves through various rituals • Lower status caste had to keep a certain number of paces away from the upper caste. This existed until the 20 thcentury in south west india in Kerela • About 16% of Indian population include groups who experience untoucability but many members of the lower caste also receive the same treatment. None of the other SA states other than India count these groups. Nepal 20%, Sri Lanka 15% • ‘Scehduled Castes’, Harijan (children of God)…used by Gandhi. Lower castes find this term very patronizing, Dalits (broken or oppressed people) à Missing in static/ scriptural view of caste • Scope for change in status : Upwardly mobile groups joined priests and gained higher status. This kind of mobility was not individual mobility. • Blurred lines between categories: Jatis didn’t always know which varna they belonged to and some of them didn’t care. The rights and restrictions that groups had was a gradual change as we move down a hierarchy. • Regional variations: Variety of things e.g how castes interact with other basis of social organization e.g lineage and clan matter as much as caste but they interact with each other to shape our social identity and status • Caste and occupation don’t coincide: there’s no one to one relationship between the two. But it may have something to do with social class in a broader sense. The lower class are largely poor and are agrarian groups while the upper class vary more in social class. Among the middle class, you get the biggest industrialists, mercantile groups, etc. • in northern and central India in the planes associated with the two big rivers, that’s the region where you have the earliest regions of classic texture caste is more solid. • Agriculture : the caste structure is more rigid in regions of large scale agriculture and more fluid with less regular access to water • The social arenas in which caste play a role have also changed. Today it matters less to some arenas than before. It has become more fluid. It continues to exist though e.g in marriage alliances. • Caste is begun to be important in the political arenaà state health insurance schemes etc. makes a difference to political associations. • While caste appears in Hindu phenomena, it exists in other communities. • In Sri Lanka, caste exists between the Hindus and the Buddhists. • Among Muslims, its different. Caste or something like caste is linked to midst of origin whether the ancestors have emerged from western or central India. The closer you are to this region, the higher your status. • Caste is a form of SA stratification and has association to religious norms one claims à Changes under colonial rule • Caste is part of this larger aspect called tradition • Caste in its contemporary form is clearly a product of colonial rule…its recreated caste in its contemporary form and made caste relations more rigid rather than more fluid. It changed more than somewhat the older view suggested. Pre-colonial caste have more of a continuing presence than what the newer view suggested. Already existed in the 17 - 18th thcentury. • Reified caste, aiming to preserve tradition: -Some routes to mobility closed off: British were trying to understand and preserve tradition which depends on who tells you what tradition is and how you choose to interpret it. They spoke to more upper caste views which made it more rigid view. They consulted people who were specialized in religious texts which also made it more rigid and heirarchal. One effect of this is that the control of the upper caste over institutions e.g temples made it more rigid. One way in which people could move up was by gaining political power by building small states. Another way in which tradition had an effect was that Varna, that larger category, people more often understood caste as varna (the creature of the text-bigger category) rather than by jati (the reality of the streets-smaller category)à This made things more rigid. -At the same time, other changes introduced in the colonial rule made things more fluid. Farmers, educationalists and some from the middle class and lower class managed to gain some and make their way up. -Way to get a higher status interacting with members of other castes e.g having a meal together -Tenant farmers were less socially and economically constrained than sharecroppers. Tenant farmers had a more commercial relationship with their landholders -Legal recognition of caste privilege • ‘Modernizing’ Changes : Colonialism brought modernization. -Preferential policies -Commercialization -Christian proselytization & responses From the middle of the 19 thcentury, British introduced preferential policies mainly based on caste to enable the entry of more middle class and lower caste status into western education and professions. It helped them gain more voice. lure people from lower caste into education. To the extent that British rulers were willing to listen to demands based on traditional identity and since caste identity was one form of traditional identity so more people formed caste associations. Caste associations did 2 things: claimed higher status for their castes and sometimes they were more pressing focused and demanded more resources approximately proportional to our share of the population. In principle, they were saying that peoples rights to their resources don’t depend on caste associations, they depend on their numbers is what they were trying to say and challenging the caste system while still mobilizing along caste lines and speaking the language of caste. Some reformist movements responded to the growth of Christian and Muslim conversion to Christianity and Islam by trying to build a homogenous Hinduism uniting various caste groups, building a Hindu community that would have the solidarity that the Muslim and Christian groups had. This was when the caste system became less hierarchal. -Logic of Hindu association: Muslims and Christians against the caste system therefore gave Hindus the motivation to associate and unify. - One of the motivations of mobilization is ideas from enlightenment about social equality. Another motivation is the growth of Christian missionary conversion (especially extensive among the students) that focused on lower classes and class discrimination as a reason why they should mobilize. They had some success. The conversion created some anxieties among the Hindu caste groups and made them feel what they are doing is that Muslims and Christians don’t have castes and therefore they hung together better. à if Hindus are to achieve what they want, they have to build that solidarity as a way of gaining control over India because that is how Muslims defeated Hindus and gained control of India and Christians (the British) gained control of India. For some people, it wasn’t as much as a grand historical reconstruction. It was more about trying to retain some control over historically subordinate groups by giving them a slightly higher status. - In regions where you had more large scale agriculture, there was a tendency to have a more rigid caste system. -Where Varna was more real, it wasn’t necessarily the place where caste was more rigid. th Lecture 3: January 16 2014 à Caste associations emerged… middle and lower classed people became more politicized. This is one of the reasons why it is easier to express caste in a democratic government • Political caste is broader than social castes. à caste and dominance • Caste still axis of social dominance: poverty, segregation, discrimination, repression • Changes in mentalities and power • caste and class: greater overlap at top and bottom of spectrum. • The middle and the lower castes got mobilized in India than in Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Happened more among Hindus than Muslims. • The recognition of caste changed most in India. The government introduced more widespread preferential policies. Government gave fellowships, introduced quotas. After independence, these quotas were expanded. Was proportional to lower caste…the share is 16%. The central government gave the lower caste quotas in higher education and employment proportional to their population (of lower caste) • quotas were also introduced in political representation. Everyone votes for these candidates. To win they need support from their own castes as well as others. All of this was meant to enable greater political mobilization. • The effect is that these preferences have aided the upward mobility of lower castes. 3% got jobs on the basis of quotas. • There was more mobility in education than employment. More positions are available in education than government. • The government left it up to the government of particular states to introduce quotas for middle class. Was introduced in southern and western India. • These preferences were temporary and would be in place till the socio- economic conditions of these groups got better. • However, the conditions were not getting better. • Untouchability was deemed illegal and became punishable by law and various laws to protect the civil rights were strengthened in the 1980’s. benefited in the areas where the groups were stronger. • Many government officials still continued to discriminate against these groups. • In regions where they are politically stronger, they have been able to use these laws to some extent. • About three quarters of the lower class are landless workers and live in de facto neighborhoods • housing segregation is strong in rural India and in various parts of Sri Lanka and Nepal • some changes that cut against this are that mentalities have changed in terms of the ways in which the average member of the lower caste feels about caste based dominance. à Relationship between cultural boundaries • In SA societies where you have different types of cultural preferences but how they interact depends on the extent to which they overlap each other. • Sects which share a religion and a language need not weaken sect based antagonisms but if you have more cross cutting boundaries, it is easier to reduce ethnic conflict • In SA identities cross cut more in India, Nepal and Pakistan and overlap in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh • In Pakistan, there is not much religious difference but muslims themselves speak different languages, belong to different sects etc. • In Bangladesh, majority speak the same language and belong to different religions. The small language minority also belong to different religions. • In Sri Lanka, 3 of the 4 largest groups are linguistically distinct. The Buddhists speak Sinhalese, the Hindus and the Muslims speak Tamil and Christians are both Sinhalese and Tamil speaking • the caste structure is rather similar so that creates a minor affinity. à Colonial institutions • East India company : Monopoly authorized by the British crown to conduct trade in 1857. “The great mutiny” was a rebellion militarily and socially. After that the British Crown decided they ought to rule India directly. Once direct British rule was established, the bureaucracy was the strongest institution. The upper reaches of the Bureaucracy was dominated by the British. Initially in the late 18 thand early 19 th century • Bureaucracy in Command • Military: Played an important role in dictatorships. They worked with stereotypes as being m • Representative institutions • Princely states • The initial formation of state boundaries had some influences in determining what happened afterwards. When democracies were established, they were based on the British model. • The British won out the local powers and other European powers. Began by annexing East India in the 18 thCentury. Annexed Sri Lanka and had considerable influence in Bhutan and Nepal. à Stages in expansion of self-government • 1880s: Started in local boards • 1909: elections began to local and district boards based on a very restricted franchise. At the same time, separate electorates were introduced for Muslims. One of the two major parties, the All India Muslim league was formed. • 1919: Provincial governments were introduced as a minor concession in return for India to support WW1. Response to the further growth of nationalist movement. • 1935: Franchise expanded to 20%. Provincial government were given more autonomy. • 1946: National Assembly was elected based on the same 20% franchise and had some power while the ultimate authority lay within the bureaucracy. • Each step was a delayed response to British actions. • In Sri Lanka, mass nationalism and mass mobilization were both much weaker than in India. • All this local self government happened in ¾ in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. • ¼ of the rule was princely states and local underlines that colonial officials trusted. à Hindu identity politics • Colonial Knowledge and Identity politics • Making a Hindu Community • Cow protection à Making the Hindu community • Background: Colonial censuses, Christian and Muslim missionary activity, colonial periodization of Indian History. • Aim: Hindu solidarity across caste lines • Some means to build the community: Cow protection, ‘Reconversion’ à Cow protection • Cow protection societies: -Hindu vs. Muslim; not lower vs. Upper caste : Many Hindus esp, upper and middle class oppose the killing of cows. These cow protectecting societies highlighted the Islamic sacred practice of killing of cows. The leaders of the cow protecting societies believed they ought to defend and protect the cow. One result of this is that during Muslim religious festivals, they would attack Muslims. This was primarily a matter of mobilizing Hindus as a means of identity against Muslims. Muslims reacted to this by asserting their right to public space. In some cases they became more defined…said we’ll make sure its not sheep but cows that we will kill and we shall do it on a large scale. This increased further level of conflict. -Different motives: Upper castes, other castes -Caste and class remained relevant • Pandey’s approach to identity mobilization: He highlights the caste angle to the society. Caste sometimes have tended to move up in status by adopting the norms and practice of people higher up. The leaders of the cow protecting societies were calling upon all members of Hindu communities including the lower and lower middle class. Was a way to make them adopt the ways of the upper and upper middle class. The suggestion was that if members of the lower class join the leaders, they would in effect, move up in the caste hierarchy. He points out that the main leaders (members of upper caste and land elites)…these groups had different motivations. They were trying to preempt the challenges emerging to their dominance. By the 1920’s and 30’s there was increase in mass mobilization. Included upward mobility and mobilization of peasants. Panday said that faced with this, gave people less attention to caste and more to religious identity so that they would face less challenges to their dominance. They partly succeeded to the extent that it was middle and lower caste also joined these societies. The motivations were not exactly the same while for the upper and upper middle class, religious identity may have been what motivated them most. But middle and lower caste wanted to gain a higher status, greater rise and respect. ‘-Subaltern Studies’: School of analysis which started off saying most historians pay too much attention to elite histories, they forget about the underprivileged groups. Want to show how subaltern groups are more subordinate. -‘Multiple subject positions’ : Just because people are carrying a certain flag doesn’t mean they become unaware of other ways in which they become social agents. It is the combination of all the ways of being subjects that a matrix of identies responds to ways in which you respond to certain conflicts. Paul Brass says cultural identity involves some agents upholding a particular symbol. à Hindu identity politics and Indian nationalism Lecture 4: January 21 st2014 à Alternative expressions of Hindu identity • Syncretism (e.g Gandhi) à felt indian nationalism should represent all Indians regardless of their religion. Was deeply religious and felt that religion to some extent should have an impact on politics. Didn’t try to reproduce the very specific features of kinship. Also highlighted the spirituality that he found was a part of all the major religions of the world. He came up with religious hems in which Hindu, Muslim, Christian visions of deity were invoked. Many others gave importance to syncretic practices e.g music. Many others believed that they highlighted some areas of convergence of different religions. In areas where religious groups came into conflict, they tried to come into convergence. • Dialogue across religious boundaries. • Variants of Indian nationalism: -Composite/dharmic: Indian= Hindu+ Muslim + Christian + Sikh. India is an aggregate of the major religious groups. There is something natural to religious mobility…hindus likely to mobilize as hindus. These groups could be brought together via various alliances. What would bring them together is an opposition to colonial rule. -Cosmopolitan/Modernist: Indian identity takes precedence over religious identity. Saw the Indian nation as distinct from different religions. Was associated with Nehru • Hindu identity given primacy in both versions of Indian nationalism. These 2 versions coexisted in the Indian National Congress. The composite style of Indian nationalism were more comfortable with mobilization along religious lines. Some depending on how the alliance was to be forged, some people representing different religious identities may have wanted more for each of their groups but wanted a deal to be cut between these different groups. • The composite group were not comfortable with mobilization along religious lines. Some modernists felt that religious mobilization would encourage backward practices. • Panday points out that both versions of Indian nationalism actually gave Hindu identity primacy in their understanding. If it’s a matter of the composite groups, the biggest piece (Hindus) should have the greatest say in defining the alliance. Panday argues that despite how it might appear at first glace, composites believed that Hindus belonged more to the Indian nation than other religious groups. Many people, mainly Hindu elites, drew a distinction between the Hindus and the other groups. Most Hindus live in South Asia so there is a natural match between being Hindu and being Indian at the same time. • On the other hand, the majority of Muslims and Christians were outside South Asia. For these reasons, many apparently cosmopolitan Indian nationalists, believed that Hindus didn’t have to prove that they were Indian nationalists. But people belongings to other religious groups required greater proofs. Hindus could be Indians without transcending their national identity. • Panday’s viewà During the 1920s the predominant of India is the Composite view. But from the 1920s onward, that was when some Indian nationalists started making the move towards the Cosmopolitian view. à Muslim identity politics • Brass on identity politics à different versions as to how muslim identity got mobilized • talks about traditionalism and modernism. Talks about muslim nationalism as a version of Islamic modernism. • Agents- interests- choice of primacy symbol -other symbols aligned with primacy symbol • Religious literati (ulama): conservative Islamic law, Arabic/Urdu. Didn’t say that law wasn’t the only thing that Islam was about. There were other things as well. • Professionals: gave greatest attention to the Special role of Muslims in professions and their relationship to political power(pre-colonial rulers/largest religious minority). • each type of social group picks the symbol that is most conducive to their interests. And they try to get others to accept their primary symbol. • to the extent that particular groups are successful, they get more people to accept their vision of their primary symbol. à Traditionalism • Agents: ‘Ulama’ (religious literati/leaders): wanted to get Muslims to give added importance to what they considered orthodox rituals. Although they themselves varied of what their particular view of orthodoxy was. They tried to encourage people to give up syncretic practices like the adoration of saints etc. they were also vary of westernization and secularization. Urged parents to send their kids to madrassas in addition to Christian schools. Wanted to immunize Muslims from the appeal of Christians and Westernization. They felt that the actual practices of many Muslims that included Hindu and colonial features needed to end. They may have emphasized getting away from different schools. Tried to equate 2 categories: sharia (path of justice as laid down in the Quran) and Fiqh. They connected that to the more detailed and more specific understandings of Islamic law and the correct ways to resolve disputes among Muslims. In the name of upholding Sharia, they also usually mobilized support for one of the 4 major schools of Sunni law, Hanfi law. • Primary symbol: Sharia (fiqh); conservative Islamic law. • Aspects of Islamic law got incorporated to the British Colonial system. One of the ways they did this was that they were to govern family life according to the laws of religion. Laws that emerged out of this was an amalgam of British common law and Islamic legal traditions. Gave importance to language as well. Urdu became more Islamized by the incorporation of Persian, Arabic words. • Brass claims that Muslims wanted to build a homogenous state. • Other symbols: Shun syncretism, purify practice, madrassa education, Arabic/Urdu, no to cow protection • Institutions: They build new religious institutions. In the context of other bigger things happening, they felt if they wanted to have real influence, they had to build strong institutions. The most important institutions that emerged in the 19 thcentury include Darul Uloom Deoband, Darul Uloom Manzar-e Islam (Bareilly), Jamiyat Ulama-i- Hind. They urged people to accept the predominant interpretations of texts within their particular groups. Some deoband ulema, just after WW1 formed an association of Indian Ulema. Other muslim figures spoke of a transnational Muslim community. Some leaders had links to particular other religious scholars. The main way in which they expressed a transnational identity was at the time of WW1 was during the Khalifat movement when in Turkey the caliphate was overthrown. • Alliance with Indian nationalism: in return for continued recognition of Islamic law. • People were doing exactly what people in the 17 th century would have done. à Modernism • Agents: Professionals à western educated, mostly from landed aristocracy. • The modernist leaders encouraged Muslims to approach different texts. • Concerns: -Special status of Muslims (as former rulers/largest religious minority) -Independent interpretation of religious texts (ijtihad) independent of ulama • Institutions: -Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental college, All India muslim league. Were trying to connect Western education and Islamic traditions and giving Islamic traditions a new understand appropriate to the new context. • In 1906, just before elections began for local governments, the All India muslim league established. • Brass says that modernists supported the colonial state. • Sir Syed Ahmed Khan supported the colonial state. Appealed to muslims to fight for patronage by supporting the state. • Jinnah, who became the most important leader of the Pakistan movement, participated in anti-colonial movements. • Islamic modernists varied in their attitudes towards colonial rule. à Muslim Nationalism • Brass understands Muslim nationalism as a later generation of modernists. Brass suggests that there was a strong link between Islamic modernization and muslim nationalism. Early Islamic modernization was done by a small elite group by landed groups. • Agents: Later generation of Western educated professionals. • The Pakistan movement had to build links with Ulema. Had to connect themselves with concerns. They had to change their politics to get connected with Muslim ulema to really effectively build a vision of a muslim nation. • Focus: Muslims a distinct political community • Institution: Muslim League • Brass: Variant of modernism • Does not emphasize ff. reasons for growth: -Muslim alienation from Indian nationalism -Alliances with religious figues rd à Lecture 5: 23 January 2014 • Other Streams in Muslim Politics • Islamic revivalism o Pan-Islamic political community; opposed Indian and Pakistani nationalisms o Main organisation that represented this vision= Jamaat-i- Islami (1941) § Emphasize texts (like Deoband and the others) § Open to local understandings of tradition that didn’t find support in texts § Proselytization § Greatest support among urban youth and some ulemas § Late colonial period—this organisation=noticed because opposed Indian nationalist AND Pakistan movement § Resist idea of territorially-rooted idea of Muslim community ú Want global Islamic community § Once Pakistan=formed, much of organisation moved to Pakistan because the condition there=more conducive to their politics § Greater emphasis on conversion § Attention to getting more Muslims to become more orthodox in practice and have more Islam in politics § ≠gain mass support in South Asian at any time § but writings of leaders became influential in Egypt and Malaysia § sometimes, conservative Islamic dictators=in power in Pakistan and Bangladesh where organisation got some influence over the government even without much popular support § has grown in Pakistan (with growth of political islam) but still not dominant force o traditionalism and modernism=centered in regions of Muslim-minority, not in Muslim-majority regions (which became Pakistan) § visions of community among Muslims in majorty regions=linked to cultures (especially predominant language of the region) § Muslim leaders in these regions paid attention to building cross-regional alliances (especially in Punjab and Bengal) • Regional Muslim cultures o Local religious figures o Crucial to Pakistan movement’s growth in Muslim majority regions o (look above) • • INDIAN NATIONALIST MOVEMENT • Colonial Political Institutions and Nationalism • Indian vs. other colonial nationalisms o Strong, had engaged in extensive mass mobilisation o Effective in building support across different religious and ethnic groups (more than most anti-colonial movements in
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