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McGill University
Political Science
POLI 322
Narendra Subramanian

Poli 322 Lecture 8 13 mid term – 2 or 3 short essay qs A long essay qstn Terms: a page on each term Paki dictatorships. 1958: coup: first dictatorship: Poli parties disbanded Limits placed on poli competition until late 60s when opposition became strong and forced regime to allow poli scene Military was rewarded Berueacracy worked the govt Basic democ: 1000 voters each were supposed to elect non party representatives. Wasn’t free competition. Opposition dint participate. Ppl handpicked by the govt Strentghen relation btw govt and influential ppl (land lords, industrialists) Beureaucrats and military leaders give themselves benefits: land. Board of directors of corporations. So got land and bsns This dint mean that state entirely went along with immediate preferences of the dominant groups: state pushed the landed elites in the industry by giving them both incentives and by threatening land reforms so that they gave up some land for industries Conditions were made easy for export oriented industry. Unions repressed. Exchange rate handeled. Fairly rapid industrial growth. US advisors called paki growth a miracle to be reproduced in other countries Poli role of religion was contained. Conservative interpretation of islam wasn’t given a lot of space. Social modernist were stronger in leadership of military and bureaucracy and able to influence the way religion matter in public life Religion however did matter. Islamic republic of paki was the name.  symbolic. constitution said that pm and governoe general had to be muslims.  mattered for The repugnantcy clause: any law repugnant to islam wont be valid  it could have more teeth if courts decided to use the law to rule out certain legislation but courts at the time dint rule out any policies based on these clause. So this combination of modernist islam and export oriented growth made govt popular among middle classes and upper classes Situation changed after mid 60s  econ growth declined. Govt was less in a position to keep injecting resources in industry 65  second war btw india and paki  most ppl saw that war  led to a stale mate  neither side won  in any case that each country that got some territory returned it. However in paki many ppl in paki saw it as a defeat cos military made em think they will win. Cos they said having a military dictatorship will make paki advantage over the democ india. These expectation was also based on the idea that major issue was Kashmir and paki claimed that Kashmiri will support paki army in indian controlled Kashmir and this will help paki. So stale mate. Taken as a defeat.  regime bcme unpopoular and opposition came out in streets  most consistent in Bengal  where since 52 regime had been unpopular cos of intro of urdu as national lingo and then this protest was suppressed and then got linked with awami league. To balance out the growth of Bengali nationalism. West paki was turned into one unit to balance it out. Punjabis majority in west paki, where all other lingo minorities felt dissatisified cos now they were in minority Then mid 60s on words the opposition was not only in east paki but also in west paki. Speacially for lower income groups and groups who wanted to see more islam in poli. Once opposition built up  segments of regime defected  Bhutto  PPP  opposition party  opposition bcme strong military decided on a transition to civilian rule  elections were conducted in 70  relatively free  dint lead to the elected power coming to power but there was civil war and stuff. Paki  half time had democ and half time dictator EARLY INDIAN DEMOC India was diff  75 n 77 where democ institutiions were disbanded. Consolidation of democ in india. The basic paths of pak and india got set in 50s and 60s. Legacies of colonial rule and democ were mixed. Presence of representative govt. dominant party  congree  ideologically pluralistic  by building a culture of compromise Major leader of nationalist movement  promised democ  mass support was built for democ which created pressure for democ on leaders If there were some representative govt there were other not representative scene too. Congress party dominance. Democ consolidated in india  Nehru scene. Constitution adopted in 1950  universal franchise and various fundamental rights At the same time the govt got some power to suppress opposition. Congress party and party system: Congress party remained dominant but als was the source from where main opposition parties came Retained some aspects of its colonial past  had somewhat elaborate structure going down to the town or village level from top. Party units set up. This system consolidated They emphasized the glory of leading independence Top leaders were leaders of nationalist movements At the same time the partys focus changed  to win elections and administer. Patronage bcme crucial way to govern the country and connect with society Congress party  catch all party  without some specifc scene. Gets a bit of support from all the major support. Patronage imp for this function of congress This way of dealing with society  costs  for democ  elected elites worked with bureaucracy and ddominant groups  restricted the free use of vote. also limited public input in policy making. Limited scope of egalitarian reform. Nehru said we will bring about social scene but it was difficult cos of the party connections. Party become kinda more ideaologically cohesive. Until independence. Factions were allowed in the congress party. So u could be members of both a faction and the congress itself at the same time. But after indep  Nehru pushed through the requirement that you can only be member of one party and no factions within the party. Effect  centrist left in congress  commitment to secularism. Multi culturalism. Democ. And gradual socio econ reform and state playing major role in stimulating economy So ppl not agreeing with this centrist
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