13 mid term –
2 or 3 short essay qs
A long essay qstn
Terms: a page on each term
1958: coup: first dictatorship:
Poli parties disbanded
Limits placed on poli competition until late 60s when opposition became strong and forced
regime to allow poli scene
Military was rewarded
Berueacracy worked the govt
Basic democ: 1000 voters each were supposed to elect non party representatives. Wasn’t free
competition. Opposition dint participate. Ppl handpicked by the govt Strentghen relation btw govt
and influential ppl (land lords, industrialists)
Beureaucrats and military leaders give themselves benefits: land. Board of directors of
corporations. So got land and bsns
This dint mean that state entirely went along with immediate preferences of the dominant
groups: state pushed the landed elites in the industry by giving them both incentives and by
threatening land reforms so that they gave up some land for industries
Conditions were made easy for export oriented industry. Unions repressed. Exchange rate
handeled. Fairly rapid industrial growth. US advisors called paki growth a miracle to be
reproduced in other countries
Poli role of religion was contained. Conservative interpretation of islam wasn’t given a lot of
space. Social modernist were stronger in leadership of military and bureaucracy and able to
influence the way religion matter in public life
Religion however did matter. Islamic republic of paki was the name. symbolic. constitution said
that pm and governoe general had to be muslims. mattered for The repugnantcy clause: any
law repugnant to islam wont be valid it could have more teeth if courts decided to use the law
to rule out certain legislation but courts at the time dint rule out any policies based on these
So this combination of modernist islam and export oriented growth made govt popular among
middle classes and upper classes
Situation changed after mid 60s econ growth declined. Govt was less in a position to keep
injecting resources in industry
65 second war btw india and paki most ppl saw that war led to a stale mate neither side
won in any case that each country that got some territory returned it. However in paki many ppl in paki saw it as a defeat cos military made em think they will win. Cos they said having a
military dictatorship will make paki advantage over the democ india. These expectation was also
based on the idea that major issue was Kashmir and paki claimed that Kashmiri will support
paki army in indian controlled Kashmir and this will help paki. So stale mate. Taken as a defeat.
regime bcme unpopoular and opposition came out in streets most consistent in Bengal
where since 52 regime had been unpopular cos of intro of urdu as national lingo and then this
protest was suppressed and then got linked with awami league. To balance out the growth of
Bengali nationalism. West paki was turned into one unit to balance it out. Punjabis majority in
west paki, where all other lingo minorities felt dissatisified cos now they were in minority
Then mid 60s on words the opposition was not only in east paki but also in west paki. Speacially
for lower income groups and groups who wanted to see more islam in poli. Once opposition built
up segments of regime defected Bhutto PPP opposition party opposition bcme strong
military decided on a transition to civilian rule elections were conducted in 70 relatively free
dint lead to the elected power coming to power but there was civil war and stuff.
Paki half time had democ and half time dictator
EARLY INDIAN DEMOC
India was diff 75 n 77 where democ institutiions were disbanded.
Consolidation of democ in india. The basic paths of pak and india got set in 50s and 60s.
Legacies of colonial rule and democ were mixed. Presence of representative govt. dominant
party congree ideologically pluralistic by building a culture of compromise
Major leader of nationalist movement promised democ mass support was built for democ
which created pressure for democ on leaders
If there were some representative govt there were other not representative scene too.
Congress party dominance.
Democ consolidated in india Nehru scene.
Constitution adopted in 1950 universal franchise and various fundamental rights
At the same time the govt got some power to suppress opposition.
Congress party and party system:
Congress party remained dominant but als was the source from where main opposition parties
Retained some aspects of its colonial past had somewhat elaborate structure going down to
the town or village level from top. Party units set up. This system consolidated
They emphasized the glory of leading independence
Top leaders were leaders of nationalist movements
At the same time the partys focus changed to win elections and administer. Patronage bcme
crucial way to govern the country and connect with society
Congress party catch all party without some specifc scene. Gets a bit of support from all the
major support. Patronage imp for this function of congress This way of dealing with society costs for democ elected elites worked with bureaucracy
and ddominant groups restricted the free use of vote. also limited public input in policy making.
Limited scope of egalitarian reform. Nehru said we will bring about social scene but it was
difficult cos of the party connections.
Party become kinda more ideaologically cohesive. Until independence. Factions were allowed in
the congress party. So u could be members of both a faction and the congress itself at the same
time. But after indep Nehru pushed through the requirement that you can only be member of
one party and no factions within the party. Effect centrist left in congress commitment to
secularism. Multi culturalism. Democ. And gradual socio econ reform and state playing major
role in stimulating economy
So ppl not agreeing with this centrist