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McGill University
Political Science
POLI 322
Narendra Subramanian

Poli 322. Lectures 6 Legacies of indian nationalist movements Pakistan movement and partitions. Indian nationalism – quite effective in building a sense of a nation cutting across religious and sub national groups – many initiatives in post colonial area: dint prevent succession. Power of the state played a rold in preventing succession demands. In northern and north east india. Congress party – movement – somewhat strong institutions formed The presence of a strong party helped consolidate democ in post colonial era Majority of post colonial countries at that time dint have stable democ But the congress was strong and DOMINANT party Dominance greater by 47 Second strongest party pretty much moved to paki Muslim league was associated with paki So congress became stronger in india That could have been bad news for democ in india Movements – ideologically pluralistic People had got used to living with some amount of differences Congress dominated for the first 3 decades From within the congress party – emerged some of the main opposition parties Like the socialist and communist party (left of the congress) Hindu nationalist and libertarian parties (right of congress) Their presence also helped build a competitive party politics It wasn’t easy to agree on programs due to ideological scence Consistent strategy could not be pursued Indian nationalism had an uncertain relationship with politics of religion. The more modernist in the indian nationalist movements -> influenced the decision to declare that india would be a secular state Religion would matter in public life Extensive recognition of religion in public life. Allowed to run religious institutitons as they wanted Distinct family laws allowed to be practiced. Within the congress party  many continued to regard india as primarily as a hindu nation Even though a commitment was made to secularism. Gandhi + indian nationalism: Most imp party builder of late colonial period. He had something to do with indian secularism. Style: anti modernism and anti statism mostly got left behind later Congress shifted its focus to state bulding and industrialization under nehru But some ppl believe that Gandhi vision remained imp in opposition against to developmental projects By 1980s a scholar claimed that india o the time looked more like the india gandhis asasin wanted. Hindu nationalism wasn’t as big as suggested but the focus was on strong state, militarilization etc. Gandhi represented Pakistan movement Until the last min the leaders were ambiguous about what they wanted Separate country or a separate area with a lot of autonomy? Eventually  paki land bro Movement for formation of Pakistan: emerged only in 1930s It dint become a very popular movement until 40s Even when the leaders emphasized separation, when they negotiated they sometimes settle for autonomy So it looks like they had an idea of using the demand for Pakistan as a way to ask for more autonomy Some indian nationalism features contributed to growth of paki mvmnt Certain crucial muslim concers (guarantees against hindu majoritarianism and demand for recognize the muslim culture) hadn’t been taken care of indian nationalist movemetns 1909  sep electorates set up for muslim (later for other religion) Colonial state every now and then supported demands of muslim league This suggested  colonial state was enabling a demand for paki But these features of colonial state was not a factor for paki mvmnt emergence Cos colonial state encouraged religious as well as caste and language groups Sep electorates  dint obvio encourage muslim solidarity cos it led to muslims against muslims in votes and so could have led to division Colonial support for muslim league dint clearly advocate formation of paki until 1940 They could have used the colonial state support for other purposes. The mvmnt dint really take off until last decade MUSLIM POLITICS UNTIL 37 Majority supported mvmnts other than muslim league or paki Iqbal  centralization of islam in some part of india  done by ppl with Islamic ideals  dint give it any territorial state or a name Rehmat ali  idea  territory that will be Pakistan  paki name It dint include bengal Bengal remained marginal, almost an after thought to muslim mvmnt Jinnah  took up the demand (in late 30s)  rebuild muslim league which was in trouble Trouble of league  36 elections of provinsional assemblies  gained only 5 percent of the muslim vote In regions where muslims were in minority  congress got more support than league In muslim majority areas  most muslims supported other parties than congresss and league Biggest provinces  Punjab and Bengal  muslim were slight majority (Bengal  large hindus and Christians) Punjab (hindus and sikhs were there too) Main parties winning there : agrarian parties Bengal – krishak praja party – kinda more radical – more for land reforms Punjab: unionist party – more of a party of a large land owners But both got a lot of support from all the major groups NWFP – ethno national organization of Pashtuns  loosely allied with congress party against colonial state Kashmir  muslim conference party  the national conference (renamed it self)  party of language nationalism  had support among different religion groups in Kashmir Some parties loosely allied with congress Some were not at all The structure of colonial polity: ther
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