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Political Science
POLI 340
Rex Brynen

Islamist Movements theory and practice terminologies  a varied of terms have been used to discuss aspects of Islamist political movements Islam: religion vs Islamist: a movement that has the objective of bringnin more of a particular version of islam in public sphere. Islmaist is a particular social ideology. Not all muslims are islamist. fundamentalist: it is kinda prejotive or that it draws some some similarity with the Christian fundamentalist. Salafists are fundamentalist though. So theres some utility in the term and so there fundamentalist is quite useful jihadist: problematically understood in the west. Not necessarily violent but its struggle. However when its used with reference to islamist movements, its used with reference to violent movements which blve that violence is an appropriate way to achieve their ideological views. salafi: islamist with a conservative or fundamentalist view of islam who wanna return to that kinda islam that they thought was practiced at time of prophet. All religions have this continuum where some see religion very literal and unchangeable while there are others who blve it should be seen in some contextual sense. takfiri: accusation that some one else isn’t really a muslim. Was first use cleverly by Jordanian jihadists cos jihad has this good wala canotation. Was a label to to legitimize these groups which were using violence against other muslims and so using this notion of being insufficiently muslim to target them. radical vs moderate: term for ppl we like more. establishment vs opposition. In many regimes the ulema are closely linked to centres of power like saudia. Egypt  historically  alazhar, the institution of Islamic learning cooperative relation with regime. Alazhar  establishment islam. Brotherhood in current scene is opposition Islamic movement. Alazhar has been interested in protecting influence even with regime changes and has therefore seen brotherhood as a rival in many ways. Saudia: salafist leaders who are supporters of regime and u have salafist imams who are supporters of AQ. So particular groups can be close to regimes and against them and it can change over time modernist: religious doctrine is flexible and can adapt to changing circumstances vs conservative: uphold the way religious practice has occuered in the past vs revivalist: argue that they both are wrong. Like Egyptian salafist. That modernist are wrong and introducing inappropriate change and innovation in islam. Conservatives are wrong cos they are stuck to traditional ways of doing things which may not have been the right way in actual islam n u need revival of original islam. timeline of (modern) Islamist politics  1928 Muslim Brotherhood founded in Egypt  1952-1970 era of secular(ish) Arab nationalism: it was secularish cos nasir did use Islamic references in his speecher but it was also argued that the arab nationality is regardless of u being muslim or Christian. And so wasn’t an islamist movement. So islamist movements were pretty week. Nasir died in 70s. gulf states became more n more imp as oil prices went up. Iran revo.  mid-1970s growing power of (conservative) GCC states  1979 Iranian revolution: overthrow of western backed shah which showed how imp islamist mobilization cld be.  1981 assassination of Sadat by Islamic Jihad. Sadat first tolerated islamist as counterweight to nasirist but when he clamped down on em he was assassinated  1982 Hama uprising: Syrian uprising by Syrian brotherhood. Pattern: rise of political islam in multiple countries.  1985 establishment of Hizbullah: following Israeli occupation of lebonan  1988 establishment of Hamas in context of first palestenian uprising out of palestenian brotherhood  1991-92 FIS wins Algerian elections; civil war follows  2001 9/11 attacks by al-Qaida  2003- US intervention in Iraq, Iraqi insurgency. In which for a period militant islamist group in sunni community bcme more mor en more imp ultimately they weaken a bit but they are still active  2005 Muslim Brotherhood does well in Egyptian elections. Still wasn’t allowed to bcme a legal party under Mubarak  2006 Hamas wins PLC elections. Doesn’t win by a big degree So growth of islamist movements from late 70s uptil early 2000s. timeline of (modern) Islamist politics  2011 al-Nahda (Ennahda) success in Tunisian transitional Elections: wins with plurality not majority.  2011 FJP (Muslim Brotherhood) and al-Nour (Salafist) success in Egyptian transitional elections  2011 PJD (islamist party) forms government after Moroccan elections (plurality not majority) forms a coalition govt. in mrocoo ofcourse the power of govt is limited by the palace.  2012 Morsi (FJP/MB) elected President of Egypt: with warning sign that a) voter turnout falling with every election and also we see him only narrowly beeting his rival even though his rival was a former crony so not a lot of pro revo ppl were not ok with idea of having an islamist pres. A striking change from parli elections.  2012 MB does poorly in Libyan elections (but later gains strength) it wasn’t very organized, since then its gathered increasing number of independent under its umbrella. But poli parties are very weak in libya ruption o Syrin ivil wr n rom  n  onwrs t rowt o jii roups witin t ontxt o Syrin opposition wo o wll os ty r itin wll os ty r mor isiplin n os ty r in support y xtrnl tors ot ovts nssrily ut privt iniviuls t n prtly os Syrin opposition is inrsinly upst wit t intl worl s not lpin tm suiintly n s tt nr rows it ls tm to support mor ril Islmi movmnts n polriztion ssoit wit ivil wr in nrl Trs t pprtus o AQ in Irq mu o wi movs ovr to it in Syri too  2012 Jabhat al-Nusra formed, growth of jihadi group within Syrian opposition  2013 Morsi (FJP/MB) overthrown; widespread arrests of MB leaders, party declared illegal; most Salafists (not all of them) and al-Azhar cooperate with new regime but also trying to limit what the regime does in the constitution negotiation process. the rise of Islamist politics due to several things:  the failures of Arab nationalism: arab nationalism promised great things abt arab unity abt the struggle against Israel(arab israeli war lost), modernization (a bit happened), dint lead to any lasting unity(only 3 years of unity btw Syria and Egypt followed by a coup in Syria and the unity fell) .  Islamist politics as a cultural defense against globalization: local defence mechanism against globalization , in rush or exposure to modern capitalist society, tv, adds, so like a cultural defenisivens at a time of changing values.  reaction against the policies of the West, Arab-Israeli conflict  socio-economic conditions. Islamic movements spoke for poor, social justice, and Islamic movements have some organization advantages since they were rooted within institutions of religion. In a sense they had a building system using mosques etc (proliferation across th arab world of small often unlicenced mosques) (you have the system in sunni islam where any one can be an imam and so u had this system where mosques provide place where u can preach religiously and politicallyu. The left had that in tradeunions but tradeunions werere under much control.  oppositional advantages of Islam:  system of dissemination  message of justice  so Islamic movements used it and agued against inequlity etc and so they made reliogusly based poli arguments  difficulty of suppression: difficutly in repressijng Islamic. U cant go in a mosque drag an imam out n beat him up. U can beat up uni students. But beating and detaining imams have a high poli cost. So provides a degree of protection  activities within civil society. For long. Lots of social groups. Dint necessarily have a poli agenda. Provision of services. Which cld then be used to recuirt and get support for poli purposes. Don’t overstate this. Research  some islamist charities aren’t that Islamic in passing those provisions. Brotherhood in Egypt did this. Salafist movements in Egypt and Tunisia often do this and on the grassroots level and that can help their poli credibility at election time. Rise of islamist parties in context of the arab spring. Has the rise peaked? Strikinkin shift from morsi winning the coup to salafist backing a popular coup. Does that mean the Islamic trend is now reversed? Or was that Egypt specific. the rise of Islamist politics  impact of regime policy  encouragement of Islamists?  sadat used it to kinda counterweight the nassirt left with islamist right. It kinda backfired on him. Jordan  brotherhood was an ally of monarchy against leftist and arab nationalist groups (till 1989). Israel  tolerated hamas emergence cos they thought they can use it to weaken PLO hoping to divide palestenians by infighting.  exclusion/repression breeds radicalism?  the hypothesis that if u exclude Islamic parties they will radicalize and theres the hypothesis that if u include them in poli stuff they will moderate.  exclusion/repression breeds moderation?  inclusion-moderation debate Not clear wthr the inclusion exclusion scene always holds. Like emergence of hamas is a prime example like palestenian muslim brotherhood had opposed armed struggle against Israel but thn hamas emerged so clearly repression can radicalize But AKP in turkey is like decendent of islmic poli parties which wilkl run for election and then got declared illegal and they will reorganize come back a bit moderate. So attempts to suppress Islamic Turkish parties made them more more more moderate. So u have to be careful abt inclusion moderation debate. Possibilities of inclusion aftr 2011 did led to radical groups come into parli politics in Egypt. Sometimes they moderate for other reasons. Muslim Brotherhood  founded in 1928 by Hasan al-Banna  current General Guide: Muhammed Badie  favours (re)Islamicization of Egyptian society from below. Long time debate within the brotherhood of doing it from below or engaging in politiccs from above.  rily  tis  formed paramilitary “secret apparatus” in 1930s. they shifted in the direcgtion of engaging in politics and running for elections through Mubarak era after 2011. And prior to 2011 they emerged as the largest opposition.  banned by Abd al-Nasir from 1950s  allowed to reemerge by Sadat, but still semi-repressed  emerged as largest parliamentary opposition group in Egypt Muslim Brotherhood  FJP-led coalition won 37% of vote in 2011 election  Salafist coalition (led by al-Nour) won 28%  Mohamed Morsi won 25/52% of vote in 2012 Presidential election. The percentage scene was 25 not 52 cos like only half of Egyptians voted so it can be said that he got only 25 percent votes/. Declining turnout was an early sign of problem. Not only of legitimacy but the whole poli scene  dilemmas of governing: never run a govt ever ever  electoral competition: constant. All other parties tryin to look u bad.  practical challenges: coupled with popular expectations and so u know dint happen  popular expectations  lack of experience  machinery of former Mubarak regime: was hostile and non corpoative ti brotherhood and dint want them to succeed. Morsi himself, his leadership style was an exclusionary then an inclusionary one. He did a poor job of reaching out to the opposition not that the opposition was interested but he increasingly alienated just abt everyone including other islamist, It doesn’t tell u how these ppl voted. Poor n rich districts vote differently. Islamist did better in poor  than rich. Cos of the message of social justice, activisim in socialism and partly cos liberal parties  had elitism who tended to run on personalities and did not do grassroot campaigning and so  serious problems in thei campaign.  Correlation of voting patterns and behaviours.  1) Salafist hai 2) Liberal 3) Brotherhood ▯ thye had such wide support in parli elections that there wasn’t any significant   corelations and so they did well amongs classes n poor n rich n ages n stuff So using diff methods give u diff results.  Muslim Brotherhood  Muslim Brotherhood is also found in other Arab countries.  Jordan  Palestine  Syria  Kuwait  Iraq  Sudan  elsewhere  although still connected, these are now largely autonomous from the original Egyptian branch. Not bidnign hierarchichal scene. Hamas  founded by militant Muslim Brotherhood members during first Palestinian intifada briefly tolerated by Israel as counterweight to PLO groups  supports the liberation of “all Palestine,” opposed 1993 Oslo Agreement has more recently expressed acceptance of Palestinian state within 1967 Borders Hamas has been ambigious abt it cos theres no absolute poli payoff for hamas to be open abt its views right now. And cos there are real issues within hamas over this issue and so they have papered over these differences. Striking parallel with the plo. The plo originaly was established to create a non sectarian democ state in all of Palestine. N starting in 1974 shifted to a 2 state solution cos there were difference, the formulation was  they will establish a militant fighting aurhtoity on any liberated soil which was code word for if we liberate the west bank in gaza we will have our state there. But it dint quite say that.first we will liberate gaza and then we will liberate the west. Hamas had somewhat same position. Some Hamas leaders think that its not possible to eliminate Israel. But cant say that cos their more radical members will get angry. So now they talk abt establishment of a state in west bank in gaza followed by a long truce with Israel which can be sold to radicals as we will fight with Israel later and to 2 state ppl as ok 2 states. So striking parallel btw how hamas leaders some of them have shifted to the 2 state solution and how it happened in plo too.  voltil support. fell from around 25% in 1993 to around 10% during Oslo
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