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341 Lecture

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Political Science
POLI 341
Julie Norman

Lecture: "A Brief History of Nearly Everything: The Reemergence of International Relations in the Middle East" (January 10, 2013) In the news this week • Iran's revenue has plummeted due to increased sanctions • Prisoner swap of Iranian prisoners and Syrian prisoners, brokered by Turkey • 3 Kurdish activists (PKK) killed in Paris • Abugrae prison, used in early years of Iraq war, site of prisoner abuse and torture, has resulted in a lawsuit payout by the defense contractor for the prisoner to former prisoners • Egypt brokers talks between Palestinian parties What is the Middle East? • Turkey and Iran are controversial inclusions because they're not part of the Arab world • (see different maps on slides) • one map called MENA, or Middle East and North Africa • one map is the Arab world • one map is Arab world + Turkey and Iran Clash of Civilizations (Huntington) • civilizations: the West, Islam, Confucius, Japanese, Slavic, Indian, Latin American, African • "Western bloody borders with Islam" • is civilization clash an accurate level of analysis? ◦ perhaps too must focus of civilization, ignoring internal state conflict • identity vs. interest? (one of the responses) • conflict and/or cooperation? (one of the responses) ◦ somewhat overlooks the numerous levels of cooperation that exist between civilizations • temporal relevance? ◦ do certain pieces have more significance during certain periods in history (think Fukuyama) • many of his critics took back their words after 9/11 ◦ resurgence in clash theory ◦ "othering" process in the US post-9/11 • response: David Brooks NYTimes articles during the Arab Spring ◦ clash might not exist among the people of these Middle Eastern countries, for they are pushing for Western political values in the Arab Spring • relevance for foreign policy??? Rewind: Western Powers and Emerging Mid East (Pre-WWI) • Britain and France liked having influence in Ottoman empire, didn't want it to fall necessarily • oil interest in the region didn't really exist • more of a geopolitical and commercial interest in the Middle East • B & F seen as benevolent protectorates that profited from their presence in the region WWI: Let's Make a Deal • deal making mostly by Britain for the war effort • contradictory agreements ◦ Britain and Arabs ▪ McMahon-Husein Correspondence (1915-1916) ▪ Britain would support the creation of Arab state if Hussein state would join the Allies ◦ Britain and France ▪ Sykes-Picot agreement (1916) ▪ looking at parts of the region not subject to their influence, to divide them up into spheres of influence like with Africa ▪ Britain would have zone leading into Iraq (see map), while
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