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Lecture: The Gulf War and Beyond (Thursday, January 17, 2013)

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McGill University
Political Science
POLI 341
Julie Norman

Lecture: The Gulf War and Beyond (Thursday, January 17, 2013) In the news this week • hostage situation (34/40 killed) in Algeria by militants ◦ in response to Western intervention in Mali • Syrian universities were bombed during exams Changing Dynamics • 1980s very bloody time in Middle East • end of Cold War--> US is sole superpower ◦ interstate conflict decreases, intrastate conflict increases ◦ from "balancing" to "dual"containment ◦ US no longer ally with Iran ▪ trying to practice dual containment of both Iran and Iraq • Persian Gulf War • start of Israel-Palestine peace process (later failure) • September 11; Iraq War • "Arab Spring" Persian Gulf War (1990-1991) • focus on Iraq and Kuwait • August 1990: Iraq invades Kuwait ◦ because of debt relief, oil quotas, borders ◦ Iraq came out of Iran-Iraq war with a lot of debt ◦ suffering from slump in oil prices, because Kuwait is over-producing, ignoring the agreed-upon quota of production ◦ Kuwait slant-drilling into Iraq, basically stealing its resources ◦ historically, Iraq had claimed Kuwait as part of its territory ▪ when the borders were drawn in the interwar period, Britain ignored their claims • International Response ◦ Sanctions by the UN ◦ Diplomatic call for a withdrawal ◦ military coalition put together ◦ US openly acknowledges it is in their best interests ▪ stability of Persian Gulf region ▪ protect US citizens abroad ▪ economic motivation • Regional Response ◦ attempts at diplomacy ◦ didn't want to see the US swoop in ◦ participation in coalition ▪ some states pressured to join, other joined voluntarily (**KNOW WHY THEY JOINED OR DID NOT
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