Lecture: Peace Process
**Note on Exam: You do not need to know who said what, only concepts
REALLY well. There are 2 essays on it.
1970s From War to Peace?
• 1973 Yom Kippur War--Syrian-Egyptian surprise attacks; Israeli counter-
• 1973 Kissinger (US) begins shuttle diplomacy (means using intermediaries)
• 1977 Sadat makes historic visit to Israel
• 1978 Camp David: 13 days of private negotiations between Sadat, Begin, and
• Peace treaty b/w Israel and Egypt
• return to Sinai (land for peace); US aid and subsidies
• Sadat assassinated internally by a countryman
◦ he had taken great personal and political risk for the peace process,
knowing he was going against his state
• 1980s Lebanon civil war, first intifada --> peace movement?
• 1980s informal contacts, bilateral talks
• 1988 PLO adopts UNSC 242 and 338, renounces terrorism
• start of US-PLO dialogue
• 1990-1991 regional shifts
◦ Persian Gulf War
◦ End of Cold War
• 1991 Madrid Conference
• 1993 "Back channel" negotiations in Oslo (Oslo Accords) --> Declaration of
◦ 1993 Jordan-Israel Peace Treaty
• Declaration of Principles (DOP); letters of recognition between Rabin and
• Israeli withdrawal from Palestinian population centres; Areas A,B,C
• Development of Palestinian security forces and administration (Palestinian
• postpone permanent status issues (borders, settlements, refugees, Jerusalem,
• confidence-buidling measures--steps towards two-state solution?
Challenges to Oslo
• settlement expansion
◦ increases under Oslo
◦ wasn't dealt with in the initial documen