Tuesday, January 22, 2013
Lecture 5 POLI 341
State Identity in the Middle East
Impact of external actors and historical processes on state and identity
formation in Middle East?
National state identities real or constructed?
National identities vs supra/sub-state identities?
Identity vs interests in Middle East foreign policy making?
Varied state identities-> varied foreign policy?
Defining the State
Elements of the modern state (Weber)?
Administrative organization- permanent structure
Financial/tax collection system
Military- Costa Rica only without one
Territorial integrity- set of recognized border; difference between
state and nation(extends beyond or lacks state borders)
Ideological legitimacy- will state last?
Modern “rational legal” authority vs patrimony?
Strong states vs weak states vs non-states
Strong states- Turkey, Egypt, Saudi Arabia; political or economic
strength and liability
Weak states- many of the gulf states before; Lebanon due to internal
Non-state- Haamas, Palestinian Authority
Spectrum of statehood in the Middle East
Nation states vs territory states? Had elements of a state and
functioned as such but that national state identity was secondary to
Legacies of State Formation Processes
Varying levels of admin strength at establishment; independence
Bureaucracy, military and financial systems
A lot of these places by Ottomans at the end of 19 century- started
constructed organized system
State borders vs indigenous social/econ systems
Social inequalities (reinforce elites)- state process started in urban areas and
rural areas based on elite system of tax collection
States respond to international pressures over domestic competition
(political and economic)
Rentier states Dependence on foreign aid, borrowing
National identity and State legitimacy
Citizenship/patriotism vs identity/loyalty – belonging to a state as opposed
to royalty to something else like family, tribe, clan, religion; Egypt worked
both these things- arab ident