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Lecture 4

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Political Science
POLI 341
Julie Norman

Tuesday, January 22, 2013 Lecture 5 POLI 341 State Identity in the Middle East  Impact of external actors and historical processes on state and identity formation in Middle East?  National state identities real or constructed?  National identities vs supra/sub-state identities?  Identity vs interests in Middle East foreign policy making?  Varied state identities-> varied foreign policy? Defining the State  Elements of the modern state (Weber)?  Administrative organization- permanent structure  Financial/tax collection system  Military- Costa Rica only without one  Territorial integrity- set of recognized border; difference between state and nation(extends beyond or lacks state borders)  Ideological legitimacy- will state last?  Modern “rational legal” authority vs patrimony?  Strong states vs weak states vs non-states  Strong states- Turkey, Egypt, Saudi Arabia; political or economic strength and liability  Weak states- many of the gulf states before; Lebanon due to internal divisions before  Non-state- Haamas, Palestinian Authority  Spectrum of statehood in the Middle East  Nation states vs territory states? Had elements of a state and functioned as such but that national state identity was secondary to other identities Legacies of State Formation Processes  Varying levels of admin strength at establishment; independence  Bureaucracy, military and financial systems  A lot of these places by Ottomans at the end of 19 century- started constructed organized system  State borders vs indigenous social/econ systems  Social inequalities (reinforce elites)- state process started in urban areas and rural areas based on elite system of tax collection  States respond to international pressures over domestic competition (political and economic)  Rentier states  Dependence on foreign aid, borrowing  Legitimacy? National identity and State legitimacy  Citizenship/patriotism vs identity/loyalty – belonging to a state as opposed to royalty to something else like family, tribe, clan, religion; Egypt worked both these things- arab ident
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