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Political Science
POLI 341
Julie Norman

POLI 341 Jan 29, 2013 Inter-State Relations: Regionalism and Cooperation - Do we talk about the Middle East as a region itself or as a set of states? - How and why do states cooperate? Theories of IR. - How has cooperation contributed to regional order? o Despite the rhetoric of pan-Arab unity, in terms of states cooperating and FP, it has been very limited and fluid - Effect of Arab Spring on regional cooperation? Why Do States Cooperate? (IR Review) - Realism/neorealism o Decisions to cooperate are motivated by whats going to help that state o State interests o Securing or consolidating their position (Waltz)  Saudi Arabia intervening in Bahrain protests o Balancing against threat (Walt)  Arab states form alliances in 20 c in opposition to Israel o Regional Hegemony  States will involve themselves in another state to increase their own power (Mearsheimer, Nye)  Egypt trying to establish itself as the regional power  Syria and Saudi Arabia have acted this way as well  But no one state in the Arab world has succeeded in this - Constructivism o Shared experiences, norms, values, identity (Barnett) o Pan Arab identity as most common - Liberalism o Shared interests  interdependence between states (Keohane)  States are economically dependent on each other o Somewhere between realism and constructivism o In a state’s interest to cooperate with others (informally or more institutionalized) - Structuralism o Fawcett reading brings this into the mid east  world systems theory  Some states from a core and other states are on the periphery o Core powers are played out in the cold war (middle east as peripheral states choosing to align or not to align with core powers) o States that are quasi-regional hegemons (Egypt, Saudi Arabia) and how states on the periphery have had to make decisions to benefit themselves in this regard How do states cooperate? - 1) Cooperation o Engagement to promote common interests o Cooperation vs. interdependence  States may depend on each other and may have common economic, security and political interests, but this is different than actively forming their policy in a way to cooperte. o Example: Syria-Lebanon relationship  Lebanon was very dependent on Syria but they did not cooperate and were very intertwined - 2) Alliances o More formal; a union, pact or formal agreement to secure mutual interests between states o Example: Alliances in Arab states against Israel - 3) Regionalism o Actors coordinating strategy/policy in the region o Establishment of the Arab League but isn’t much of a regional power o We assume mid east states act in this regional way but it is rare - 4) Regionalization o Increasing region-based interaction o A process that states may or may not be involved in o Like globalization - Where would OPEC sit? rd o Despite its assumptions, 1/3 of its members are not Arab states o Different than a Middle East regional group, but lots of big players within it  politics play out in regional alliances and responding to the OPEC pressures. o Organization that transcends the regional level Cooperation and Regionalism in the Middle East? - Most would agree that mid east regionalism has been low in spite of the discourse in 50’s and 60’s with Nasser and Pan-Arabism - Cooperation has been limited
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