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POLI 341 (52)


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McGill University
Political Science
POLI 341
Julie Norman

POLI 341 Feb 21, 2013 States and Nuclear Weapons - Who has them? o US, Israel, France, Russia, China, UK (all members of security council) o India and Pakistan are openly nuclear o Israel has no comment policy on nuclear weapons o N.Korea developments - Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) o Started in 1970 o 3 main pillars:  Non proliferation (don’t want it to spread)  Disarmament (US and Soviet Union)  Right to peaceful use of nuclear technology  Keeps coming back for Iran’s case  Allow to have it for energy but you have to allow for international inspection - Waltz: Why do states seek nuclear weapons? o Balance-of power threat and security dilemma (Iran against Israel) o Domestic power and standing (Enhancing national pride and power) o Regional standing and direct deterrence (Iran?) - Why do we fear states with nuclear weapons? o Are such fears rational? (Waltz) o Potential risk o Many worry about it falling into the wrong hands; rogue state  Irrational leaders or terrorists  Both of these reasons stated a lot for Iran  So much concern has been pointed toward Iran because he has acknowledges that he wants to destroy the state of Israel, denying the holocaust and saying their illegitimate  BUT Iran has had chemical weapons for a while and have not employed it against Israel  there are divisions within the actual government about how much Abamadinejad uses this language and hurts their international relations Iran’s Nuclear Sites - Older one is in Arak - Ones open for inspection are focused on low-enrichment Uranium - You need to increased enrichment from 3-5 % for Uranium energy but if you are developing a nuclear weapons program, you need to enrich it to 20% o The levels being developed at Natanz and Qom are worrisome o Will probably be negotiated next week o Qom is deep inside of mountain so it can’t be surveyed by satellite monitoring which has been done with some of the other sites o Pressure on Iran to close or move the Qom site to somewhere it can be monitored by international community - Parchin is the military site  once you have the Uranium, you still need the warheads and stuff to launch them but Iran has not let inspectors go here Iran’s Nuclear Program - In the 70’s it was supported by Europe, US when the Shah was in power o Diplomacy push between West and Iran - When revolution happened, they had set the program aside from the war and in the last 10 years we have seen it develop further - Do they want nuclear weapons? o Khamanei has a 2005 fatwa in which Iran publically came out and said they have no intention of nuclear weapons and didn’t want a nuclear state  religious ruling coming out of state o Why do they want the bomb?  Israel rhetoric, US, regional actors?  Pakistan is a nuclear state and is on the border of Iran and is a source of instability for them right now  Enhance Iran’s position in the Gulf and throw its weight around with Saudi Arabia and the GCC - Is Iran complying with the NPT and treaties? o Iran is a member the NPT o Are they in violation?  IAA and NPT are trying to differentiate b/w non-compliance and violation and it gets into a grey area o Iran has not been complying in the sense it has not fully disclosed extent of prog
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