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Political Science
POLI 342
Imad Mansour

Foreign Policy: Middle East Imad Mansour March 3, 2010 Regional Complex in the Levant Kurdish People contd. 1980 coup- to destroy left leaning groups and independents-- backfired ●change economic landscape: rise of Islamic sympathy, generally economically liberal landscape ●before 2000: the Kurdish problem was largely contained by the Turkish military and security apparatuses ●though there were many military attacks ●the Kurds had extremely low- non-existing levels of determination, not able to use land or express identity freely ● large minority in Iran: around 5million live in Iran ●historically there were serious animosities b/w the ruling regime in Iran and the Kurds ●Syria and the Kurds: the majority live in the Northeast, obviously an agricultural agrea-- make up around 10% of the population ●co-opted by force, politically quiet ●Iraq and Kurds: relatively integrated 23% ●ability to control the Kurds from central government ●starting in the early 90s, Kurds were able to disassociate themselves from the central government ●since the 90s, the Kurds in this area have enjoyed freedom from action in the ME ●given the presence of minorities across this region, allows them to share their efforts at trying to organize or call for an independent Kurdish state: however one state deals with a minority is bound to spill over to the Kurdish groups, or the interests of the surrounding states Orontes river flows upstream from Lebanon to Turkey ●location of the river helps us to understand why Syria has historically been interested in controlling lebanon ●throughout the 80s and the 90s, Syria not only controlled water in lebanon, also put claim to the waterway: as long as syria takes much of the resources from lebanon, Turkey was able to curtail much of the water flow from Lebanon Turkish-Syria Relations (how the Kurdish issue and the water issue merged to affect the behavior of the region or of the regime in general) ●historically, Syria and Turkey fought indirectly ●through words, diplomacy, Syria claims that Turkey to
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