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McGill University
Political Science
POLI 345
Warren Allmand

POLI 345 September 3, 2013 LECTURE 1 “IOs in the 20 Century” General Info rd  Conferences begin in 3 week, enroll next week  Simulation of the UNGA – 40 countries, teams of 4  Partnership Era section series of 3 case studies Purpose of Studying IOs  Embody the spirit of our time, global village  Highest and most complex social form created by humanity  In the midst of an incessant flurry of world political events and crises QUESTION: Why do we find ourselves in a world populated by IOs in the 21 century? th  Nothing was available before although the need rose in the 19 century  So what allowed them to be created and for them to rise to such a prominent force today  What makes it necessary for us to organize ourselves at a global level  There seems to be a demand for more global governance so what is it that makes it  2 forces o Pushing: The Modern State o Pulling: Globalization The Pushing Force: The Modern State The Modern State  The state has become a universal form of political organization o State idea is ubiquitous – since 2 decades ago o The state is the only form that has the international legal and political recognition and authority o Treaty of Westphalia (1648) – is where we can trace the origin of the idea of the sovereign state  The state is a territorial unit – it has exclusive jurisdiction over a given size of land o States didn’t necessarily have to used to be bound by land o State has exclusive jurisdiction over its land o Failed states –central authority doesn’t have control over entire territory o Therefore failed because don’t meet this criteria  Externally, sovereignty means the absence of a superior authority o State is the highest authority over a given piece of land o “technically” 193 members of the UN are sovereign o Therefore can reject external interference o Of course there are exceptions  Eg. Military action can be legally authorized o Anarchy – no political power, lacks a supreme form of government POLI 345 September 3, 2013 The Pushing Force of IOs  IOs reflect the prevalence of sovereign states  They are intergovernmental in nature  States create IOs to serve their ends  If truly sovereign though, there wouldn’t be IOs  It’s because there are plural states, vague borders, etc. – IOs created to co-exist in a plural world  But this still doesn’t explain their existence and importance  Explain them as bureaucracy  Mimic form of the modern state  At administrative level, like a government  Replicates all the things that (western) states have created as their structures  Therefore, to understand why IOs look and function the way they do, good to look at states  Pushing towards the modern state – separation of powers The Pulling Force: Globalization  This new era of globalization is not a new concept but certainly more intense  “Globalization refers to the processes whereby many social relations become relatively delinked from territorial geography, so that human lives are increasingly played out in the world as a single place” (Scholt, 2001: 14-15)  De-territorialization o Unties politics from its territorial basis that has been prevalent for the past centuries o Eg. Even facebook – geography isn’t as a big a factor anymore, at least, not a limiting factor o This has become the normal way of maintaining social ties  Driven by technological change, but also a political project o But the new face of globalization is not just due to technological changes o Is a political project – there are rules (free trade, etc.) that make globalization possible st Rosenau: “Governance in the 21 Century”  1995  See when the technological revolution picks up  What were the challenges faced, that they saw coming as this revolution was picking up  How globalization leads to contradictory political pressures  “fragmen-gration” – both fragmentation and integration o As supernational integration was happening (EU) there were also many levels of fragmentation happening within states or regions o Both things were happening at the same time o Going above the state and separation beneath  Globacaization – globalization and localization o GATT and WTO created to settle international trade o Everyone wants free trade o Wanted globalization of the market but at the same time there was localization and tensions, people reluctant over certain matters o Disjunctured  Showed how globalization led to a scaled revolution o Citizens now able to become players on the world stage o Not going to be easy to have an impact but there is the possibility POLI 345 September 3, 2013 o Especially due to technological era o This has never been the case before for centuries o Your impact beyond the borders was not significant before o Not only citizens but unions, NGOs, private corporations, etc. o Eg. Arab Spring  Harnessing of social media necessary condition for uprising to occur  Globalization generates new kind of challenges that cut across borders  Eg. Global Warming o Environmental change o Overall, no way for one country on its own to deal with the issue o Requires global action  Eg. Financial Crisis o Almost 5 years now o Are no longer national o Systematically transnational, spread across borders very quickly o 1990s, Asian Crisis, devaluing currency in Thailand spread quickly  Eg. Terrorism o Networks emerging in late 21 century are transnational  Eg. Ethnic strife o Africa o Rwanda, Congo o Refugee flows  Eg. Health issues o HIV/AIDS The Global Governance Gap  This concept brings together the two forces  Tension b/w the pushing and pulling force creates a mismatch b/w the nature of emerging global problems and existing forms of political rule  Historically we’ve inherited the concept that the solution is found in states  But increasing
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