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Political Science
POLI 345
Warren Allmand

Midterm:  Covers lectures from 1 to 8, including the readings  Choice of 6 IDs, you pick 5  Provide 4 elements of significance for each General Assembly has opened Today’s Question What kind of tools does the UN have at its disposal to maintain peace and security 1. the Cold War deadlock 2. How the Security Council became centrepiece 3. A survey of key tools The Cold War Deadlock: SC paralysed by repetitive use of the veto, over 40 years 1946 – 1965: the USSR was the main “vetoer” By the end of the 1960’s, the US used its veto a lot more, as the USSR stopped using it as much Some countries tried to solve the veto problem by empowering the General Assebly, so that it could make decisions on security matters when the SC could not. The Korean War:  The US and its allies employed force through a SC resolution  At the time, Moscow was boycotting the SC to protest the rejection of communists China by the SC (miscalculation of moves) 2 Key elements in 1956: The Hungarian Revolution:  Rebelled against their communist regime  Warsaw Pact invaded the country The Suez Crisis:  Following Nasser’s nationalisation of the canal, the French, GB and Israelis invaded Egypt.  US did not back its European allies  Innovation as a new resolution was proposed: Peacekeeping was thought of as a more neutral way to get involved As Warsaw pact members turned away from the USSR, the Soviets refrained from employing force as they did in Budapest Gulf War (1990-1991):  Hussein believed the Soviets would oppose any resolutions of the SC  However, Gorbatchev supported many of them, and for the first time in 40 years the P5 reached an agreement  Resolution 678  Impressive success for the SC, but this created expectations for the following years o The UN was not equipped to maintain this successful track record. Voeten Reading: the political origins of the SC’s ability to legitimate the Use of Force.  SC: no forces at its disposal  Legitimacy is key as the SC would probably disappear if a sufficient number of countries was to put it into question  Why is it that so many countries are happy to accept this exclusive club? In the post-cold war era, why do states behave as if it is costly to circumvent the SC?  Legal consistency: it keeps applying the UN charter in such a way that countries gain a lot of certainty. o Has been inconsistent in the past, when breaches in peace have not led to any intervention  Exclusive and secretive: It’s a place where countries can talk and reach compromises o No transcription of any deliberations between the P5 within the isolated rooms  It is a moral force for the good with appropriate measures to apply justice in the world o Questionable Morality, as the decisions are taken on the basis of political agendas (particularly those of the P5)  It actually does what the members intended it to do o Partly Ineffective: not just in the Cold War (Darfur) o Unable to effectively and consistently deliver public goods For Voeten: Legitimacy comes from the fact that it’s an elite pact: SC agreement provides the public with a shortcut on the likely consequences of foreign adventures It is a source of information: Liberals and rationalists are obsessed with this concept.  General forces for Voeten: Information, Availability, Usefulness Some Tools to Maintain Peace and Security: 1. Diplomatic Tools: Generated by the Secretary General’s offi
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