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US and Europe.docx

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Political Science
POLI 346
Mark Brawley

The US and Europe: Revolving Relations 14/10/2012 16:16:00 Europe as a Priority  in 1945, debates over where American priorities lay  but after ‘loss’ of China, that debate is somewhat settled - recognized as a real loss because China is recognized for its potential - a lot of finger pointing - NSC 68  shifted perception of Soviet Union; colouring perception of China  they become allies in 1949/1950  settles the debate, Europe should be important, and Japan in Asia - what do the Europeans need? what do the Americans expect in return? - how should the US deal with Europe?  the answers reflect changes in American grand strategy Post-War Europe  divided between East and West - Germany itself is divided  Soviets want it to remain unindustrialized, and not recover from the war, redrawing the Eastern borders  the United States think they have learned their lesson, fighting to have Germany reintegrated  French, British and American occupied areas work together (West Germany)  Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands all struggle to recover (much more localized damage in WWI than in WWII due to more fluid fronts and different methods of warfare in the latter)  much bigger mess than what was left after WWI  how do you go from war time production back to peace time production? it was a huge problem after WWI  each still trying to hold onto own roles - Britain and France are broke, losing their lead roles in the international sphere  dollar shortage (USDs)  the currency everyone wants - European firms cannot compete with American firms, hard for Europe to get USDs through trade  Truman Doctrine - directed funds to the most threatened (by Soviet invasion/influence) only  Greece and Turkey - focus is more intently on west (as opposed to China) General George Marshall  envied for his intelligence  butted heads with certain members of the military  regardless people listened to his ideas  he is patient, he explains things, he deals with the whole picture  there to make important decisions during the war  US Army Chief of Staff 1939-1945 (Roosevelt) - Marshall wanted to be in battle, President wanted him by his side for advising  Secretary of State 1947-49 (Truman)  Secretary of Defense 1950-51 (following NSC 68)  associated with ‘the Marshall Plan’ The Marshall Plan  following the Truman Doctrine, wants Marshall to be the one to ask Congress for money, he will best explain the plan to offer economic support to Western Europe  US funds to be offered with conditions: - recipients must agree to engage in economic planning  they have to justify how they are spending the money (infrastructure, agriculture, etc.)  provides information on how plans in different countries will mesh together = coordinated effort across the countries - recipient must agree to coordinate exchange rates  artificial deflation of currencies against the USD was recommended  eliminated the need for USDs to trade between European countries and it improved the trade status of European countries to the US
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