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Political Science
POLI 354
Mark Brawley

Intro. 07/09/2011 05:29:00 Office Hours: Monday, Wednesday 1-2 email via Web CT Goal: explain systemic outcomes (i.e. open trade) Key Approaches: Realism (emphasizes states and the importance of competition) Liberalism (more popular now in IPE; domestic sources of IPE) Marxism (classical emphasizes class distinctions as the key actors hierarchy within the domestic sphere economics drives politics) Institutionalism (blends realism and liberalism developed specifically to explain IPE questions) Constructivism (how norms and ideas change over time emerged from questions about security much less traction in IPE) 1 midterm October 26 th 20% of grade IDs and one essay a short paper (6 pages double spaced) November 23 30% of grade a formal final exam 40% of grade short essay, long essay, IDs conferences 10% of grade Defining the Subject International Political (the study of power) difficult to agree what power leads to disconnects and measurement issues when were talking about security, power is easier to quantify (i.e. soldiers, battle ships, etc.) but it becomes a lot more difficult to quantify when talking about political economy power as a relationship concept power is relative and someones relative power effects how they interact with others Economy (the study of wealth) money can be used as a measure of wealth no measurement issues math can be used and this is an advantage because the logic is pure the disadvantage of having a clear measure is that there is not a market for everything most of what goes on in society is off the market (i.e. what happens in the household) bringing the interaction of wealth and power on an international stage why separate politics and economics? before the two were always combined the split was driven by the development of economics (Alfred Marshall) the notion is that power should NOT be involved in market transactions the return of political economy early 1970s OPEC oil crisis, crisis in the value of the USD (Bretton Woods failed because negotiations failed politics) Concepts political: states, coercion economics: markets, cooperation talk about all of the concepts together Classic Questions guns versus butter what is the role of International Organizations the relationship between technology (or economic growth) and power interaction of the domestic and the international (globalization) the role of systemic characteristics international sources of wealth relevance of foreign competition trade ? popularity of protectionism variance in the growth rates of states consequences to specialization in trade Traits of International Regimes strength scope Why do regimes change? Realism: its all about power and competition between states Liberalism: governments pursue the interests of certain domestic factors Marxism: class struggle shapes political outcomes Institutionalism: actors desire cooperation, but it remains challenging Constructivism: ideas and norms shape how states and actors behave Realism 07/09/2011 05:29:00 The Origins of Realism Why is there war? divided people between idealists (i.e. Woodrow Wilson legal tradition; legislation can prevent war) and realists (historical background) Thucydides oldest realist? talked about wars between Greek poleis because there are no restraints, states can choose to act how they want power is coveted constant competition there is always risk for armed conflict Machiavelli doesnt always sound like a realist but some of his writings can be construed as Realism E. H. Carr 1930s looking at the policy outcomes between Realists and the Idealists (i.e. Wilson as an Idealist started the League of Nations) in The Twenty Year Crisis (1939) he says the problem is that Germany has become much too powerful in Europe (writing to Brits, he says that thinking that peace is the desired outcome is smug, that is only the perspective of the Brits, perhaps war and change is valued over peace) war may be a bad way to solve disputes but its the only way to create change at the international level o Carr criticized the idealists more than he developed realism Reinhold Niebuhr he was originally a theologian who was struggling with what the US should do while the world around them is going up in flames (beginning of WWII) starts off thinking that idealists have it wrong: people are imperfect and will remain that way is Realism real? o people are capable of incredible evil as well as incredible good it is not accurate to say that all people are evil dies it describe the natural order? o classical realism (Morgenthau) probably no. we assume people to be out for power and to dominate o structural realism (Waltz) focusing on human nature isnt a good place to start to explain political outcomes if your outcome is changing (there isnt war all the time), then you
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