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Lecture Democratic Theory Until January 23.docx

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Political Science
POLI 365
Jason Scott Ferrell

Lecture Democratic Theory MonWed 11h35-12h55 January 7 , 2013 - Democracy is not historically predominant o Start with the Greeks and own they practiced democracy - Nature of liberty, equality, in different periods and civilization - Idea of citizenship o Individual rights  Liberal view o Marxist Democracy  Class consciousness - Office Hour o Tuesday 9 to 12 January 9 , 2013 - What is democracy?  Rule of the people  Important throughout history  Elections  Elections Free and Fair  Rep by pop  Not present in the Greek Period  Fundamental liberties  Rights  Comes mainly from the Romans  Rule of Law  Maybe found in Greece  Accountability (Elected Officials)  Governmental Responsiveness  Enforcement  Legislative Assembly  Greek  Rule by the majority  Not necessarily compatible with rights  Mill, tyranny of the majority o To what extend do democracy actually goes with these - Greek/Athenian Democracy o We do not own a philosophical treaty of Democracy from the Greeks  Only historical records/evidence  Have to tease the theory is, have to get the values out of it o They do not give a shit about individual rights - Democracy o What does it means  Rule of the People  Demos o People/ Many / Masses  Kratia o Power/Rule o Connotation of coercion, illegitimate o Pejorative  Monarchy  Rule of the One  Archy  Archê  Legitimacy  Aristocracy  Rule of the few/ rule of the elite o How to clean this terms/ make it legitimate  Want to make it good, benign  Ultimately as a form of governance can be linked with a bunch of practices we would not like - Greek History o Initially had a King  Ruled in Athens with a council, noble  Aeropagus  Hereditary nobility  Served for one year usually  Ability determined by wealth / how much land you have  Delibaration had a big role to play  Limitations upon the monarch, not absolute  Creation of the assembly th o 6 century BCE o Solon  Set of reforms  Telting power away from the aeropagus and king, and toward the Assembly o Food Shortage  People are going hungry  Large number of free men sell themselves into slavery to people wealthier than you in order to get some food o Solon  Wanted to stop this reform of being able to sell yourself into slavery to get food or get away from dept  Abolish this practice  Limit the amount of property someone can own  Places a limit on the property someone can own, how much wealth  Limit on how much could be spend of funerals and marriage  Promoted distributive justice  Allocation of material sources in the society  Distribution of offices and honors within society  Trying to curve some sort of practices that what destroys honor or status in the society  Encouraged the immigration of foreigners (metics)  Trying to expand or supplement the work force  Living as a resident alien somewhere else was questionable  Would only do this for wealth and trade  Was not looked upon well  Loosen some of the restrictions on who can participate in the areopagus and the assembly  Changed the criteria from one of birth to one of wealth  No matter where you were born, but mattered how much you did  Greater number of people that can participate, more time to participate  Established the council of 400  Ambiguous  Meant to balance of against the areopagus  Agenda setting function for the assembly  Provide greater loyalty to the city - . o Cleisthenes  Father of Democracy  Reinvented the tribal system that defined Athens  City composed of 4 tribes  Determined by birth  Tribal allegiance tied to birth  Patronal decent  Potential source of problems in the city  Changes this  4 tribes to 10 tribes  Changes the nature of Athenian Politics  In term of where you reside  City divided into 10  Composed into the three regions o Each as part in city, coast, lands o 3 Groups  In land  Coaster  Citizen  Changes the allegiances/ social identity  Participation to politics is changes  Changes the composition of military o Units not determined by kinship, but by tribal councils  Undercuts the ties of plans  Introduces the Council of 500  Not sure if revision of 400 or completely new  Broaden it  Same function as 400  Does not eliminate the aeropagus o Not really that important over time  Introduces the practice of ostracism  Exile  If you begin the be too ambitious, exile from the city and leave for 10 years  Have their name written on potery, and have to leave 10 years  Was better than be killed or slave  Not deprived of your citizenship  Allowed to regain your property o Greece: not really extension of liberty, but extension of equality th o 5 century  40 000 citizens  Males over the age of 18  Eligible for citizenship  Could have been 40 000-100 000, depending the years   10 000 metics  Could not be enslaved  Could not be subject to corporal punishment  Had the same access of judicial rights than women, just a little less than men  Needed a patron, could never become a citizen  Might be make a citizen if  100 000 Slaves  Important for the Democratic Process  Slaves provided the labor to free up the citizens so they could participate in the assembly  Women  Not a lot of information about this  Segragated society  Not allowed outside the home without a male  Not the object of man’s desire  Important role in Athenian society o In charge of religious rights within the house o Oversaw the funeral disposition  Not allowed to participate in the assembly  Not citizen fully, Athenian woman could not be enslaved, and cannot receive corporal punishment o Citizens  Opened up  Both parents have to be Athenian parents  Citizenship cannot be gained by territory  Age of 18, registered on the tribal wall by the Father  Porogative of citizenship  Ability to participate to participate in cults, festival and worships o Religion integral to democracy o Public activities o Moments to foster sense of community  Allowed to attend, speak and vote in the assembly o Isegoria, the equality of speaking  Equal protection of the law o Isonomia  Equal protection under the law  Had the right to trial  Isegoria & Isonomia are the only instance of equality in the Athenian society, procedural, limited to political procedurs  After the age of 30, had the right to serve on Jury o Over 300 days a year  Could serve as a magistrate after a certain age  Allowed you to own land o Methics could not  Immune to corporal punishment  Could not be enslaved in the city  Duties of the Citizens  Military Service o Had to serve for 2 years, from 18 to 20 o After could sit in the assembly  Had to pay taxes o Sporadic o No real income tax o When faced with crisis, would levy a special tax upon certain people  Paying tax was a good thing, honorous tax, proof of wealth, proof of importance o Specific Institutions  Assembly  Important in the time of Solon  Composed of the whole body of the citizens  Numbers of the citizen population varies  Met on a hillside, the Pnyx o Measurements on this hill, could not get more than 6000 people  Took the vote on a show of hands o Really difficult on close issues o Is it really effective  Inefficient  The idea of participation itself was more important than efficiency o Plato: it is inefficient o Participation is considered way more important than actually achieving anything  Final say in all major matters o Declaration of war o Voting of taxes o Decisions on taxes  Couple of council  Aeropagus  Council of 400-500  Allowed for the preparation of what matter would be discussed in the assembly  Overcite responsibilities on the magistrate  Countrol of the city’s wealth  Management of the city infrastructure  Control of the fleet, naval power  If issue of the assembly an issue was close, could provide an opinion  Each tribe had the ability to ran the council for one month of the year o Head of the Council, chose one person by lottery, changed every day of the month, in this tribe o Suggess that everybody that is a citizen as the ability to serve as a public servant  Not particularly the case o Need to assume that everybody has the political ability to run a council  The Courts  Drew from an annual panel of 6000 potential juries, to be randomly asserted to serve in a tribe  Lottery, could serve on everything  Civil and criminal cases  Heard complaints against the magistrate  Heard complaints against people in the assembly  Determine whether or not a notion in the assembly was constitutional or not o Had to fit historically with the philosophy/ identity of the city  Vote first on a question of guilt, and then vote on the punishment o No process of appeal o Court decision were final  Age qualification: 30 year old male  Disqualified from service if you had an outstanding dept.  201 to 501 jurors o They would met only for one day o Is it fair? Is it effective?  Magistrate  Executive officials  300 to 800  Charged to execute the law in some way  Randomly assigned to certain office  You could nominate yourself  One-year service, non-renewable  Actions would be reviewed by one of the court or the council o Limited discretion on the work you do o Mainly about the budget  Office of the General o 2 general who served, not selected by lottery, but by elections o Idea that you needed the qualification for being a general o Could be renewed o If a little bit ambitious, become a general o Different general were supposed to come from different tribes th January 14 , 2013 - Athenian democracy not aimed at being efficient o Extremely time consuming o Not professional o Very stable regime  Failing at the result of the Peleponisian War  Lost the war to Sparta Periclès o Highlights an ideal conception of democracy o Values and norms that define Athenian Democracy o Speech in honor of Fallen Soldier of the Peleponisian War  Question of Charaters  Social Precondition of Democracy o National habits upon which Democracy relies upon  Without these habits, democracy could not flourish  To what extend do a theorical framework is needed for Democracy? o Habits of Character  Easy Temperament  Not necessarily pursuit of luxury  Natural Courage  A generosity or liberality of spirit  Reflects the shared nature of the citizens of the city  Sense of Duty  Feeling of Honor  Versatility  Ability to participate in deliberation  Prerequisite to wise action o Benefits of Democracy  Commitment to equal justice before the law  Social standing is determine by accomplishment and ability, and not by class  Opportunities for political success and standing  Poverty does not bar the way from accomplishing something  No need to be jealous of other citizens since all have the same opportunities  Variety of customs and beliefs  Availability to luxury and leisure  Provides a military discipline based upon habits of ease  Naturally cultivated courage  Shout at Sparta  Attempt to show that the democratic institutions of Athens are as good as Sparta  Opportunity to pursue private ventures o Is this the way we would think about democracy?  Our conception of democracy also believes in the variety of culture  Value of freedom, individual rights  Some sense of deliberation  Policy has to reflect some sense of consensus  Possibility of voting  Periclès is not concerned on voting  When he comes about merit etc. only come for males  Military service  Military service is not a default in Democratic culture  Honor  Conception that you don’t have to be honorees to participate in democracy  Need to make politics honorable  not really happening here  Versatility  Not really happening in our democratic institutions anymore o Internal tension between individual aspiration and common good  Idea of ostracism  Place limits upon the individual  Tensions are reconciled  To assert that our common good trumps our individual ambitions  The fruits of democracy  Civic ideal, commitment to the common good  Public service trumps private pursuit  Merits of the citizens  Citizenship is the good for the individual  Athenian before everything else  Not that they lack ambitions, o People who don’t want to get involved in politics, they are useless o Asserts the existence of a political culture predisposed for democracy  Democracy is not something that travels, if there are national habits that predispose democracy, maybe it means that democracy is not for everybody  There are assumptions that the values of democracy are not suited for everybody in the world o Indicate that there’s a tie between freedom and the law  Obedience to the law is a certain type of freedom  What does it compare to our conception of freedom?  Freedom comes from the legal space of society, what you are allowed to do o Normative assumption  Obligations to the polis trumps everything else  Unlike now, cannot retreat from your political obligation  City represent a common way of life  Why would not want to participate in this?  Metics, something questionable about this  Idea of a good life is defined as a civic life  Assumption that there’s an innate capacity to be able to participate in politics  Citizens  No presumption of elite should rule, wealth should not preclude you from politics  Idea that obedience to the law is a hallmark of democratic behaviour  Freedom for the Athenians is not understood as form of license, it is the ability to do what the law allows  Can do what you like under certain boundaries  Idea fundamental equality  Everybody is equal in the sense that you have the capacities to participate  Everybody equal before the law  Idea that democracy is compatible with a bunch of practices that our society would consider really bad  Really exclusive  People are both precursor and product to Democracy - Plato o Born in 427 BCE o Known as someone that is really critical of democracy  His critics of democracy comes from his status  Variety of personal reasons o Political vision  Republic has taken up the question of what is justice o Several fundamental ideas he is working with  Idea that virtue is knowledge  What is good is something that we can know  Morality is something that we can know  Truth is objective  We can discover the truth regardless of communities etc.  Truth is objective and universal  Moral truths is objective and universal  Do not murder o Is it really universal? o If you want to deny a moral obligation, you have to have a good reason  Moral truths are allowed to each individuals, but not applied equally  Truth is universal  In some sense, same truth for everyone and everywhere  Knowing the good means that you would do the good  Controversial claim  To go against the truth means acting in an irrational way  Obligation to act according to it  The good of the individual is that same as that of the polis  There are natural differences between individuals o Justice is understood as a form of harmony  Analogy between the soul and the city  Different parts of the soul and of the city  Hierarchical arrangements of the parts of the soul and city  3 part soul  Reason Rules  Spirit Obeys  Passions are following  3 part city  Philosophers o Determine the laws  Guardians o Enforce the laws  Everybody else o Obey the laws  Distinction between the parts of the soul and of the city  Everybody is suited for only one thing, and this thing is determined by their rational capabilities  Assumption of specialisation  What is wrong when you passions and emotions overthrow your rationality, it is not going well  Can we distinguish between people the way he says it  It is wrong to think that way?  What is wrong is to think that it is the only thing that they can do  Redefine the abilities and differences of people o Wants to argue that if we want to properly understand these differences, we need to pinpoint what they are  The most important differentiation is upon reason  That is only what helps you to achieve the truth  Most fair difference there is  Intellects  Certain people should rule and other people should obey  They are the best to determine what is good and true in society, as they are objective  It would be irrational to give these powers to someone who is stupid o Philosopher Kings  By default, they should have proper control over the society  His conception of justice seems to be variant to a notion with equality  Democratic conception of equality is according to him is absurd and irrational o Criticism  His discussion of democratic regimes falls upon the democratic soul and the democratic state  Discussion of democracy takes place during the decline of the democratic Athens  Importance of money and property in the degeneration of the polis  That is where moral coercion and democracy declines  That is why philosopher king could not have personal property  When the individual becomes to love something more than truth or good, then degeneration happens  Highlights the violent basis of democracy  Democratia, form of rulership that is coercive  Democracy is established through violence or the fear of violence  Democracy comes with the concept of a illegitimate people rule  Establishment of democracy in modern tie  Revolution always proceeds Democracy, and it is always violent  The basis of democracy are grounded upon violence  Unjust regime time  Defined by a particular understanding of Freedom  Freedom understood as license  People can do whatever they want  Democracy promotes equality of pleasure  Democracy does not make a distinction between different type of desires/pleasures  No distinction between necessary and unnecessary pleasures  People can pursue any type of desires  Social consequence : No moral compass  Tolerate was is shameful  Denigrate what is honorable, virtuous, moral  Insensitivity to moral differences o All of our pleasures are equal  Individual consequences  Encourages indulgences, wastefulness  Treats vices as if they were virtues  Political consequences  Prepares the way for tyranny  Gets repeated quite a bit in history  3 class of citizens o Political ambitious o Wealthy individuals o The People  The first class, to succeed, they pander to the people, the 3 class. They cannot succeed without the support of the people o They get the support of the people they cease the wealth of the wealthy, and give it to the people o Impoverishes the wealthy, it degrades people  Tyranny happens when the politically ambitious enslave the people and impoverish the wealthy; the people become needy of the tyrant  Individuals cannot differentiate between the pleasures o Lack of self restrains  Foster class antagonism o Ends up hurting everybody o Indiscriminate view of equality eradicates the ability to make valid moral distinction  Weird view of freedom; the ability to do whatever they want o Democracy depends upon metaphysical basis that he sees as problematic  Yields to a more degenerate form of politics th January 16 , 2013 - Machiavelli o To what extent is he romanticizing the Romans - Roman Republic o 6 to the 1 century BCE o How does it compare to the Greek - Republic o Res Publica  Public Theme, Public Affair  Translated as the idea of the common wealth  The State¸ o Set of institutions that incorporates aspect of Democracy and aspects of Monarchy  Assembly, legislative body : Democracy  Executive power: Monarchy o Democracy is not the same thing as Republic  Both refer to a certain form of people’s rule, popular sovereignty o Major difference with Greece  Institutionalised Representative Power - Institutional Structure of Roman Republic o Multiple Assemblies, multitude of legislative body (Main Ones)  Curiate Assembly  2 oldest assembly in Rome  Composed of Patricians o The Wealthiest Class  Originally, the body of elected magistrate (most important)  Invested in governing authority (Imperium)  Later, its power was diluted  Eventually only had the power to confirm the election of magistrate made by the Centuriate o Moving from a small body controlling most things to an extension of power and participation o Is there something intrinsic in Democracy that leads us to expand the participation  Centuriate Assembly  Composed of all free men of Rome (they are members of the assembly)  Appointed the magistrates  The assembly that had the power to declare war  After it became clear that the vote was going to do, they did not even bother asking the other 95 centuries wanted to do  Different administrative factions within Rome, everybody is divided in all of these o Tribes (35 of them)  4 urban tribes  All the people that live in the city are squeeze into these 4  The majority of the population lives in the city  31 rural tribes  The most wealthy  Have more power over the city o Classes (6 of them)  5 classes reserved for the Patricians  1 class for the Plebeians o Centuries (193 of these)  98 reserved for patricians  95 reserved for the Plebeians  Votes are determined in term of tribes, centuries or classes. o Classes are dominated by the minority of the most rich, over the majority of the poorest  How they took their votes o Everybody classified in term of classes and centuries o 98 Centuries  5 classes (vote the representative of the classes) o 95 centuries  1 class (vote for the representative of the class) o Classes represent centuries o Representative voting, weighted towards the wealthy o Minority of the population as the most importance in term of the legislation ; they also go first in term of voting  Eventually, transition over to the tribal assemblies o All members of Rome are members of the assembly o The tribe becomes the pertinent place of voting o Voting is voting by tribal association  1 tribe = 1 vote  Patricians are living in the rural area  The plebeians are living in the urban area o Still in some sense unfair  This remains
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