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Lecture 2- Historical Context.pdf

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McGill University
Political Science
POLI 451
Sven- Oliver Proksch

ProgressTreaty of Rome essentially tried to create a common marketintegrating the free movement of goods people services and capital in the European communityCommissions role is to put forward policy proposals to achieve the goals of the treatiesgoals in ordercommon customs tariffcommon agri policy guaranteeing minimum pricesquick progress set hopes highSetbacksquickly became apparent that the 6 needed to grow interest from other countries to joinquestion raised of deepening and wideningwidening the EU enlargement of the EU with more membersdeepening the EU increasing the scope and strength of EUs powerssupranational or intergovt unionimbalance weight of FrancoGerman alliancerole of large vs small states and their weight in decisions rift bw de Gaulle and other membersUK membership France vetoes twice in 1960sde Gaulle feared UK inclusion would stall and slow down integration Empty Chair Crisis 196566 Fr chair remained empty in the Council of Ministers Development of the Legislative System of the EUEU legislation adopted through interactions bw Council natl govts the Commission and the EU Parlno single procedure to govern this interaction written into the Treaty of Romenever said how laws would be passed the whole process the treaties are quasiconstitutional documents for the EU but no specific common procedure written out each policy was clearly linked to a particular decisionmaking procedure each treaty article specified what voting rule would be usedCouncil unanimity or qualifiedmajority votingEP consultation or not the Council was then the ultimate forum for decisionmaking large member states had more votes than smaller ones roughly pop proportionalscheduled introduction of QMV in the Councilchallenged in mid60s by Fr Pres de GaulleFr wanted to preserve vetoand protested loss of the power by leaving Fr chair empty in Council Luxembourg Compromise 1966setback for integrationagreement to disagreeallows a member state to block a decision in the Council if it declares the matter a vital national interestresult 2 decades of intergovernmental bargaining Emergence of Summits European Councilheads of state and govt had started meeting informally to discuss most urgent problemsactually did not place in the existing institutional frameworkin 1974 these summits were formalized through the establishment of the Councilnowadays a formal institution regularly meets four times a year in Brussels with its own presidentrole provide pol guidance agendasettingTerminology DO NOT GET CONFUSEDEuropean Councilinstitution of the EU EU heads of state and govt and Commission PresidentCouncil of the EUinstitution of the EU ministers from EU member state govtsCouncil of Europeintl organization which comprises 47 countries of Europepromote democracy and protect HRMovement in the 1970swidening1973 expansion UK Den Ireland lost referendum in NorwaydeepeningFP coordination European Political Cooperation EPCnew policies European Regional Development Fund ERDF and European Social Fund ESFCommon Agri Policy CAPEuropean Monetary System stable exchange rates1979 first European Parl elections Ambition Towards an EUSingle European Act SEA in 1986set economic goal of 1992 for establishing internal markettreatyamended the Treaty of Romefresh impetus in Euro integrationproactive leadershipnotably Jacques Delorsfailure in previous decadesglobalizationperceived competitive disadvantage of Europe visavis US and Japresolution of Br budgetary questionMediterranean enlargement Towards the EU SEA 1986new policy areasdeadline to complete internal market new social and env policycooperation in eco and mon policynew institutionsending the Luxembourg Compromise QMV in Councilget rid of vetomakes sure maj decisionmakingincreased EP involvementnew responsibilities for Commission single market env health and safety soc standard legTreaty of Maastricht Treaty on EU in 1992with a new treaty every 5 or so years like revising your constitution that often ever closer union reiterated from Treaty of Rome institutionalizes Commission plan for Economic and Monetary Unionlaid out Euro money plan in detailmore funds for cohesion policies EU soc policy consumer protection EU citizenshipleg decisionmakingintroduction of codecision procedure a veto on some leg for EPno supranational decisionmaking in FP CFSP and free movement of persons JHA creating a pillar structure no member state was willing to surrender veto in FPA Plan for Economic and Monetary Unioncommon market incompatible with multiple natl currenciesproblem high transaction costs linked to currency conversion and uncertainties stage 1 19901993free movement of capital introducedstage 2 19941998member states have to fulfill eco criteriaconvergence of member state eco policies and strengthen of cooperation
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