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Lecture 2

POLI 212 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Constitutional Monarchy, Protestant Reformation, Counter-Reformation


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLI 212
Professor
Hudson Meadwell
Lecture
2

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12/10/2018&
Democratic*Republicanism*and*Old*Regimes*
- Radical&Alternative&to&Old&Regimes&
o There&were&many&different&challenges&to&the&old&regimes,&challenges&rooted&in&
nationalism,&republicanism,&etc.&
§ Republicanism&was&the&most&radical&challenge&of&them&all&
o Liberalism&could&live&with&monarchs&&
o Nationalism&=&drive&sovereignty&from&the&people.&Monarchial&form&of&government&
was&not&compatible&with&nationalism.&
- 7&points&to&the&republican&challenge&
o Republicanism&wanted&to&do-away&with&monarchs&all&together,&were&not&satisfied&
with&introducing&constitutional&limits&to&monarchs,&main&goal&was&to&get&rid&of&them&
all&together.&
§ Interest&in&republican&constitutions&in&which&the&head&of&state&was&elected&
§ The&French&revolution&began&as&an&attempt&to&constitutionally&limit&the&
powers&of&the&monarch;&it&was&a&movement&that&was&replaced&with&
republican&challenges&
o Republicanism&was&anti-Catholic&
§ Form&of&civil&religion,&sought&to&introduce&its&own&symbols&and&institutions,&
wanted&to&limit&and&organize&and&become&central&to&civil&society&
§ Didn’t&want&to&just&replace,&but&seek&roots&into&civil&society&
Catholicism&was&a&form&of&legitimation&for&the&old&French&regime&
(monarchy),&wanted&to&separate&church&and&state,&to&remove&special&
relationship&that&connected&it&to&political&institutions&
Catholicism&organized&all&activities&in&the&social&sphere.&For&
republicanism&to&be&hegemonic,&it&was&necessary&for&it&to&challenge&
the&catholic&church,&challenges&between&19th&and&mid&20th&centuries&
Successful&in&separating&church&and&state&in&1905&in&France&
o Republican&challenge&as&more&than&a&liberal&challenge&
§ Liberals&ok&with&constitutional&monarch,&republicans&were&not.&
§ Countries&with&constitutional&monarch&tend&to&be&societies&in&which&the&
protestant&reformation&took&root,&or&where&the&counter&reformation&was&not&
successful&&
§ Both&republicanism&and&protestant&reformation&were&both&challenges&to&
Catholicism&&
o French&republicanism&sought&fundamental&break&with&the&past&
§ There&was&an&attempt&to&introduce&a&new&calendar,&new&styles&of&dress&
(leveling&down),&etc.&
o Republican&challenge&in&France&was&incomplete&
§ Was&immediate&push&back&after&the&revolution&
§ Was&able&to&institute&the&1st&republic,&but&there&was&still&too&much&conflict&
(1792&until&1958)&where&republicanism&did&not&assert&itself&as&the&new&
dominate&ideology.&
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