Radical alternative to old regimes: there were many different challenges to the old regimes, challenges rooted in nationalism, republicanism, etc. Republicanism was the most radical challenge of them all: liberalism could live with monarchs, nationalism = drive sovereignty from the people. Monarchial form of government was not compatible with nationalism. 7 points to the republican challenge: republicanism wanted to do-away with monarchs all together, were not satisfied with introducing constitutional limits to monarchs, main goal was to get rid of them all together. Interest in republican constitutions in which the head of state was elected. The french revolution began as an attempt to constitutionally limit the powers of the monarch; it was a movement that was replaced with republican challenges: republicanism was anti-catholic. Form of civil religion, sought to introduce its own symbols and institutions, wanted to limit and organize and become central to civil society. Liberals ok with constitutional monarch, republicans were not.