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Lecture 1

POLI 212 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Mark Mazower, Democratic Consolidation, Security Dilemma

Political Science
Course Code
POLI 212
Hudson Meadwell

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Lecture 1, January 9th
The long 19th century: organizing device 1789-1945 historical process within those
How Europe developed politically ! things change as a consequence of what
happened in 1789 and then later in 1945
1789 – French revolution
1945 – military defeat of German national socialism, fascism
Long 19th century: ridden with a combination of recurring interstate war and domestic
political instability
- 1789 French revolution – exit from the old regime of France towards a
democratic alternative, real important challenge was not democracy in a
general sense, but republicanism in France and in Europe. 1. Distinctive nature
of the republican challenge, 2. This is an event that challenged monarchy not
only in France
-1815 conclusion of the Napoleonic wars and a relatively comprehensive peace
settlement that settles relations between nation states after war, and also was
designed to protect the principle of monarchy
- 1848 wave of republican challengers to old regimes in Europe, in large measure
they fail, unsuccessful challenges to old regimes in republican forms -
republicanism in France took a long time to be accepted
-1870-1871 illustrate importance of interstate war and domestic political
instability, Franco Prussian war, and transition to third republican France
- democracy is not a European birthright, it was something that only became
possible post 1945 because fascism and national socialism were militarily
Peace of Westphalia – peace settlement after war – introduces and entrenches
Period in which the genesis “social question”
-how will the EU society adapt and respond to industrial capitalism?
-how to incorporate them to political institutions

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Lecture 2, January 12th
- Long nineteenth century
- Democratic republicanism and old regimes
Democratic republicanism as an alternative to old regimes
Late 18th century rejection of old regimes
Liberalism, nationalism and republicanism ! the third was the most radical challenge
of all
Liberals and liberalism challenged old regimes but could live with monarchs as long as
they were limited by constitutions
Nationalism was a challenge because one of the motivating principles of nationalism is
to locate sovereignty in people, but there was nothing incompatible with nationalism
and monarchical rule as long as the monarch was limited in appropriate ways so that
the popular sovereignty of the nation would rule
Republicanism challenges are deeper – seven points: republicanism…
1. Sought to do away with monarchs all together – weren’t satisfied with
introducing constitutional limits to monarchs – motivation was to do away with
monarchs and the monarchical principle all together – interest in a republican
institution in which the head of state was elected
The French revolution began as an attempt to constitutionally limit the
prerogative and authority of the monarch – reform movement that was
replaced by republican challenges
2. Anti-Catholic – form of civil religion and sought to introduce own symbols and
institutions – organize and penetrate and become central to civil society – not
only replacing political institutions, but, sinking roots into society and
Catholicism was a challenge in two ways – 1. Form of legitimation for the
French monarchy – goals of republican challenge in 19th century was to
separate church and state – remove catholic state from political institutions 2.
Catholicism had its own deep roots in society – organized activities in the social
sphere, and for republicanism to be hegemonic in society it needed to
challenge the state – running battles between the catholic church and
republicans through 19th and early to mid 20th centuries

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Only successful in separating church and state in 1905 – after failing to do it in
the aftermath of the revolution
Republicanism is a form of radical challenge in societies where Catholicism
continues to play a role – Italy and Spain for example
3. Liberals can live with a constitutional monarch – republicans couldn’t – those
countries that have constitutionally limited monarchs tend to be societies in
which the protestant reformation took root - historical affinity between
constitutionally limited monarchs, protestant challenges to Catholicism, and
liberal political ideologies. Republicanism is a challenge to old regimes that can
be contrasted with protestant challenges. Republicanism is a challenge to
Catholicism but so was the protestant reformation – which leads to liberal
4. French republicanism in its heyday sought a fundamental break with the past –
another measure of its radicalism – attempt to introduce a new calendar and
styles of dress (leveling down)
5. Republican challenge in France was incomplete – the revolution was rolled back
so that all that republicans sought in that revolutionary moment was not
fulfilled in the transition from the old regime to the first republic – there was
immediate push back in the form of counter revolution in France and the
republic was successful enough to institute the first republic – but not powerful
enough to make the republican principle hegemonic in French politics –
continual conflict over the principles of republicanism – regime instability in
6. French revolution was local – to replace a monarch – but European wide
implications. Republicanism in France was an attack on monarchy and
Catholicism wherever they were found
7. Republican moment of the French revolution was modular- diffused, imitated,
copied – nothing intrinsically French about it
Michael Howard – contrast between pre and post enlightenment Europe to make the
argument that there actually isn’t much difference between pre and post. His basic
point is that both democracy and peace are relatively recent features of European
politics and political history – democracy and peace come relatively late to European
society – Europe post enlightenment was as warlike as Europe pre enlightenment –
democratic ethos took centuries to be instantiated
Howard confirms the importance of the French revolution as a turning point in French
politics and the European society more generally - French revolution crystalized
political coral (party of movement and party of order) political coral shapes European
society and politics. Not political party in modern sense – but loosely organized groups
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