POLI 231 - Plato
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Sources of Knowledge
Socrates: knowledge should be framed to the individual's “soul.” Rejects crowd-
teaching methods such as books and lectures.
Socrates worries that a public speaker is incentivized to please the audience,
rather than to impart wisdom.
Believes the political world will crush the just person.
Socrates' Impunity (meddlesome investigation into the nature of the universe”
1) Holds an objective standard of virtue > Implies holding reason above
2) Tested the Oracle > Implies that revelation is not a source of truth
Politicians are good speakers, but do not tell the truth
Poets are merely vessels for inspiration, and do not comprehend the full meaning
of their poems
Craftsmen do not realize the limits to their specialized knowledge
Crito's arguments for Socrates to save himself
1) Unjust to betray oneself
2) Abandoning his sons
3) Lack of courage
Socrates' defence for obeying
1) To show gratitude > to Athens
2) Citizen of Polis > analogous to a child of a parent > need to obey
3) Implicit consent > did not leave in exile, agreed to trials by Athenian law,
4) To disobey would be unjust > would show contempt for and undermine the
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