POLI 322 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Congress Socialist Party, Hindu Law, Party System

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Lecture 9
Tuesday, February 4, 2014
Pakistan: first dictatorship, 1958-71
Parties banned, “Basic Democracy”
oElectorates of 1000 voters each were supposed to elect non-party
representatives who would represent them
oNot free competition, opposition didn't compete in these elections
oPeople hand-picked by the regime would become the local representatives
Alliance of bureaucracy, military, economic elites
oMilitary was rewarded with increases in benefits, salaries
oBureaucracy and military placed themselves on the boards of directors to
become landlords and economic elites as well
Export-led industrial growth
oConditions were made easy for export-led industries
oExchange rates were fiddled with
oUnions were repressed to enable industrialization
oBetween 1958-65, there was rapid industrial growth
The growth was considered a “miracle”
Limited public role of religion
oRole = contained
oConservative interpretations of Islam were not given status
oThere was influence on the way that religion mattered and it was made less
oReligion still mattered
oThe official name of the republic was still an Islamic Republic
oConstitution said that the PM and GG had to be Muslims
oThere was a clause in the constitution called the repugnancy clause  any law
repugnant to Islam would not be considered
oRestriction of top offices were to Muslims only
Opposition to regime, especially from 1965
oBengali autonomism (Awami League)
oPakistan People’s Party
oExpectations of the dictatorship was that there would be more focus on the
army and therefore they would be able to defeat India if it came to war
Especially because of Kashmir  they thought the local population
would support Pakistan because of the Muslim majority in the area
In Indian-controlled Kashmir there wasn’t popular support for Pakistan
Hence the stalemate in the war
oThe perceived defeat in the war and declining industrial growth caused for
popularity in the opposition
oSince 1952, West Pakistan was not happy with the regime
Protests that were repressed about Urdu being the main language
Mainly the Awami League
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oTo repress the West Pakistani uprising, the regime turned West Pakistan into
one province
Punjabis were the definite majority in West Pakistan and the linguistic
minorities felt dissatisfied with the limited clout they had (they lost
their provinces)
oMid-1960s caused the opposition to grow
Significant in the urban lower and middle class groups and those who
wanted to see more of a role for Islamic politics
Early Indian Democracy
India had a fairly smooth democratic consolidation in the 50s and 60s thanks to
policies that helped and had support
Relevant legacies of colonialization
Conducive to democracy
oStrong party
oIdeological pluralism of nationalist movement
Congress party built a culture of compromise between the different
factions and visions in the party
oElite commitments & mass pressures
Leaders promised democracy
Mass support was built for democracy which put pressure on the
leaders as well
oExperience of representative institutions
Military and bureaucracy was set up in the colonial period and these
habits stuck around
Major institutions & policies – Congress Party and party systems
Congress party remained dominant but also led to the different factions
From party to party system
oCentrist congress party
oOffshoots as opposition: communists, socialists, hindu nationalists, liberarians
Containment of potentially undermocratic forces
Some activities changed afterwards
oNo longer getting rid of colonial rule  more about winning elections
Patronage = how they connected with society and governed it
oHanded out from the government to the ruling party, bureaucrats and
important groups
Until independence, factions were allowed to exist in the Congress Party and you
could be a member of Congress and another party (i.e. Hindu Maha Sabha, Muslim
League, Congress Socialist Party, Communist Party)
oAfter independence, Nehru pushed that you could only be a member of one
party and removed the ideological factions in the group
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