POLI 329 Jan. 18.docx

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14 Apr 2012
January 18
- Is there fundamental continuity or discontinuity between Leninism and
- 1) The Rise of Stalin
o a) The Kronstadt Rebellion, saying that it was not what they had
signed up for, they wanted free workers, a true Soviet state
These were the very workers who had supported the
Bolsheviks, but they decided to brutally suppress the workers
Prototype of later events, such as liquidation of kulaks
o b) 10th party congress, March 1921
Solidification of one party state, informal ban on factions
within the party itself
Outlawing of other parties
Introduction of the New Economic Policy (NEP)
NEP essentially introduced a mixed economic system, a retreat
from the war communism of the civil war era, under the NEP
there was private agriculture (tax in kind on production)
Private small businesses as well as private trade
Along with this, the flourishing of some freedoms in the
cultural realm, not political pluralism, but cultural pluralism
and era of cultural blossoming
75% of retail trade was in private hands and a much more pen
society than existed in the civil war era
o This period sees the Soviet Union go from collective leadership with
Lenin as the main figure to a one-person state under Stalin
o Lenin wrote was is referred to as Lenin’s testament, wrote about
leadership qualities of closest members in the Bolshevik Party,
wanted to avoid a split, wanted stable leadership but saw Stalin as
using too much power and being rude, was intolerable and suggested
a replacement of Stalin, someone more loyal, more considerate, less
capricious, and Lenin was right but it was suppressed and ignored by
other party leaders
- Stalin’s strategies:
o Assumed banner of Lenin
o Used patronage from position as Secretariat, derided as Comrade Card
Index, meant that Stalin was in charge of giving jobs, many people
owed him for their jobs
o Also used the ban on factions to persecute political enemies
o Concealed motives
o Divide and Conquer, he did not go after opponents all at once, went at
them one by one, first Leon Trotsky by scaring other members of the
party and forced him into exile, Stalin gets Bukharin as an ally by
turning him against Zinoviev and Kamenev, then he turns on
Bukharin, have a public break in 1928 as Stalin becomes more
interested in industrialization and tries to requisition grain from the
countryside, but Bukharin says they need to maintain alliance with
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