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April 3rd - 5th
The End of the End of History
For Tiqqun, there ought not to be any more attempts to escape from the state of
nature, which is what most of the previous social contract theorists (Hobbes, Locke,
Rousseau) have attempted to do.
On the contrary, it is only because of the modern state`s attempt to escape from
the state of nature that the state of nature even seems intolerable.
This embrace of the sate of nature contextualizes Tiqqun`s anti-statist theory.
The modern state consists of three failures to leave the state of nature.
Both communization and autonomist theories denied that Communism is the end of
history. Both classical Marxists and liberal theorists had predicted that their
respective models would be the `final stop`, the last stage in the evolution of
political systems since the dawn of civilization.
Empire didn`t see to fight civil war as a nation-state would do, but it sought to
There is no monopoly of violence without a monopoly of legitimacy. Thus, the state
is an attempt to construct a moral order, an attempt to construct a legitimacy that
it never had nor can have. In this view, the sovereign is that which a citizen ought
to obey (in comparison to the sovereign that the citizen must obey due to coercion,
Three Failures of the State
Absolutism – Liberal – Welfarist – Empire
All of these forms of the state, for Tiqqun, have pre-supposed the legitimacy of the
Tiqqun wants to ask why we even pre-suppose that the state is legitimate in the
The distinction between State of Nature and the Government is the distinction
between legitimacy and illegitimacy; Tiqqun believes that there never has been any
The public space is controlled by the police, because it is where the police can
intervene at their own discretion.