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PSYC 100
Marco Preussner

Psych 100 Emotion & Motivation November 6 , 2012 10.1 How do we experience emotions? o Distinguish between primary and secondary emotions. o Compare and contrast the James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, and Schachter-Singer two-factor theories of emotion. o Discuss the roles that the amygdala and prefrontal cortex play in emotional experience. o Define misattribution of arousal and excitation transfer. o Discuss common strategies that people use to regulate their emotional states. The term emotion and mood are often used interchangeably in everyday language, but it is useful to distinguish between them. Emotion (affect): feelings that involve subjective evaluation, physiological processes, and cognitive beliefs. Emotions typically interrupt whatever is happening, or trigger changes in thought and behaviour. o Subjective experience: feelings that accompany an emotion o Physical changes: increases in heart rate, in skin temperature, and in brain activation. o Cognitive appraisals: people’s beliefs and understandings about why they feel the way they do. Emotions are the spice of life, makes life worth living. You’re able to enjoy certain aspects of your life. What is the link between emotion and motivation? Clearly emotions will lead to motivations. Motivations arise from a strong emotion. Mood: diffuse, long-lasting emotional states. Rather than interrupting what is happening, they influence thought and behaviour. can start with an emotion… Emotions have a subjective component We experience emotions subjectively; we know we are experiencing emotions because we feel them. The intensity of emotional reactions varies but people who are overemotional or under emotional tend to have psychological problems, for example: o Mood disorders: such depression or panic attacks; o Alexithymia: this disorder causes people to not experience the subjective components of emotions, e.g. Elliot. One cause of the alexithymia is that the physiological messages associated with emotions do not reach the brain centers that interpret emotion. Damage to certain brain regions, especially the prefrontal cortex, is associated with a loss of emotion’s subjective component. Distinguishing between types of emotions Distinguishing between primary and secondary emotions is conceptually similar to viewing colour as consisting of primary and secondary hues: o Primary emotions: emotions that are evolutionarily adaptive, shared across cultures, and associated with specific physical states. o Secondary emotions: blends of primary emotions. They include remorse, guilt, submission, and anticipation. If the emotion motivates you to do something, you’re going to do something to get away from the negative emotion. What about the positive emotion? Happiness by itself, motivation that you get from that is “keep doing what you’re doing” but that’s differentiated but not necessitating a motivation to do something about that…. Doesn’t require you to engage in further action. Culture and emotional variation Culture determines what people feel angry, sad, lonely, happy, ashamed, or disgusted about. Some cultures have words for specific emotions unknown to other cultures. Ex. Schadenfreude Some cultures don’t have words for emotions that seem universal to others. Ex. Tahitian and sadness Differences in secondary emotions appear to be reflected in differences in languages. The Circumplex model At the center of the Circumplex model is the intersection of two core dimensi
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