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Module 1 Lesson 5.docx

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McGill University
PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

Module 1 Lesson 5 Notes The Nature and Causes of Psychological Disorders (b) Substance-Related Disorders - a psychoactive substance is a chemical substance that acts upon the central nervous system where it affects brain function, resulting in changes to a person’s emotions, perceptions, or thoughts (ex. nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, prescription meds etc.) - Substance use disorders  four types 1) substance dependence, 2) substance abuse, 3) substance intoxication, 4) substance withdrawal  to achieve ‘substance abuse’ standards, an individual only has to meet one of the following: 1) failure to fulfill important obligations as a result of the substance, 2) using the substance in a situation that is dangerous, 3) legal problems related to the substance, 4) regular use of the substance despite it causing problems in the individual’s social or interpersonal relationships  substance intoxication is a temporary state when a person is under the influence of a psychoactive substance, the person must be experiencing clinically significant negative or harmful behavioural changes or psychological effects to receive this diagnosis  substance withdrawal involves unpleasant physiological or psychological symptoms when a person stops consuming a psychoactive substance - Substance induced disorders  describes individuals experiencing the symptoms of another mental disorder, but the symptoms are a result of consuming a psychoactive substance (if someone develops delusions as a result of cocaine use) Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders - the following are psychotic disorders listed in the DSM-IV  Schizophrenia: has 5 main subtitles, all are characterized by the presence of at least 2 of the following- delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behaviour, or negative symptoms or only one symptom if it is a bizarre delusion, a hallucination that consists of a running commentary on the person’s thoughts/behaviour, or hallucinations involving to or more voices conversing with each other  Schizophreniform disorder: symptoms of schizophrenia that last from one to six mts (shorter duration that is required for schizophrenia)  Schizoaffective disorder: requires a period of time when an individual experiences a mood episode at the same time that they are exhibiting symptoms of schizophrenia  Delusional disorder: delusions considered as non-bizarre (ex. delusions about being followed or delusions of being significantly more powerful/important than one really is) bizarre delusions are delusions that are not possible (ex. you are Jesus)  Brief psychotic disorder: a brief episode of psychotic symptoms that lasts between one day and one month  Shared psychotic disorder: the development of a delusion that is similar to a delusion already held by someone close to the individual (ex. a man has the delusion the CIA is following them then his wife develops that belief) - in some cases of schizophrenia patients display catatonic behaviors, behaviour unresponsive to the environment  one type is the catatonic stupor where the person sits without moving for a long period of time - Biochemical bases of schizophrenia  possible biochemical causes include: an abnormal abundance of a certain type of dopamine receptor in the dendrites of neurons, an excess release of dopamine during neurotr
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