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PSYC 100
Daniel Levitin

Introduction to Psychology 100 Class Notes93 Lecture 1VocabularyThe Mind Body Problem Mind existed before we were even born while the body is a recycled tangible dying thing PreSelection Bias When there is a bias even before you select the group being studied For example you test only religious people on whether or not religion is important to someoneConfound Lie not what you really feelExperimenter expectation Says what they think the experimenter wants to hearLab bias People behave differently in labs than in real lifeRandomized Experiment Random group of peopleControlled Experiment No outside effectPlacebo Effect3 pills exampleAssociation is not CausationCorrelation is not CausationEx Smoking kills is a correlation not causation9 7 Lecture 2The 7 Claims of Psychological Science1Psychology is an empirical science because it can be measured repeatableJohn Darley and Latine Observed that people can be influenced by situationsA social psychologist will say that the situation you are in can overcome these predispositionsDivinity Student ExampleStudy by DarleyGives divinity student task of going to this meeting Meeting is other side of campus Some are told to hurry others are told to take their time On the way there is a man dying asking for help on the floor This experiment found that the students in a hurry were less likely to help But was this study flawed YesThere were a lot of things wrong with Darleys Study1since all participants were Priest students2Just because they are priests does not mean they are helpful people3Study was all men4Diffusion of responsibility someone else will helpPsychological Science1Experiments come from observations Not all experiments are testable thoughThere has to be validity to experiments they have to be repeatable and testableHow do we measure behaviorcorrelation relating two things to one another without causationCorrelation is not CausationObservation Can track accuracy on how they react Brain Scanssuch as FMRI MEG Just noticeable difference Smallest change in something that is noticeableIndependent Variable upbringing what the experimenter can controlDependent Variable Report of the testee resultIndependent Review Boardall experiments must go through this board They decide if it is worth doing the experiments to make sure it is safe and legalOversee all experiments involving humans and animalsCant just be any experiment has to be worthwhile and scientifically validInformed Consent Participants have to know everything99 Lecture 3Chapter 2The Four Goals of Scientific Research1Description of behavior We try to describe what we observe No manipulation of the variables at all2Prediction of behavior Want to be able to predict an outcome To do this you need to first observe3Determination of the causes of behavior Determine cause of what you see You predict something but you want to know why4Explanation of behavior underlying mechanismsExplain what you seeExample Early scientific ancestors described the movement of stars But they could not predict where the stars would appear later They then stated naming the planets Venus mars and they tracked them After systematic documentation they were eventually able to predict where a planet would end up and how long it would take Lacked an understanding of what caused these motions Later Einstein would give us a cause Why you should be Skeptical of Scientific Data2
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