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PSYC 100
Daniel Levitin

How did the Behavioral Study of Learning Develop 237 learning an enduring change in behaviour resulting from experience essence of learning is understanding how events are related dentist and painassociations develop through conditioning a process in which environment stimuli and behavioral responses become connected 2 types classical conditioning pavlovian conditioning a type of learned response that occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response a song in a scary movie makes our hearts beat faster operant conditioning instrumental conditioning a learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future studying leads to better grades freud used report techniques ie dream analysis to assess mental processes that believed were behaviours primary determinant John B Watson believed that things that could not be observed directly peoples mental experiences were not a valid indicator for psychological activityfounded Behaviorism a school of thought based on the belief that animals and humans are born with the potential to learn just about anything states that the environment and its associated effects on animals were the sole determinants of learning based on John Lockes idea of tabula rasa blank slatestates that infants are born knowing nothing at all and that all knowledge is acquired through sensory experiencesBehavioral Responses are Conditioned Pavlovs Experiment Ivan Pavlov nobel prize work on the digestive systemsalivary reflex salivation at the sight of a person or bowl is not automatic and therefore must have been acquired through experience neutral stimulus unrelated to the salivary reflect ringing bell presented with stimulus that reliably produces the stimulus food this pairing conditioning trial repeated a number of times critical trial bell sound is presented alone and reflex is measured UR Unconditioned Response a response that does not have to be learnedreflexsalivation elicited by foodUS Unconditioned Stimulus a stimulus that elicits a response such as a reflex without any prior learning unlearned and automatic behaviourfood CS Conditioned Stimulus a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken placeringing bell produces salivationCR Conditioned Response a response that has be learnedsalivation at sound of only bell the condition and unconditioned responses are salivation but not identical conditioned response is usually weaker bell produced less saliva that food did Acquisition Extinction and Spontaneous RecoveryPavlov believed that conditioning is the basis for how animals learn to adapt to their environment each time it rained a delicious and nutritious plant bloomsanimals that learn this association will seek the plant out every time it rains acquisition the gradual formation of an association between stimuli one conditioned rain and one unconditioned plant bloomonce a behaviour is acquired how long does it persist animals sometimes have to learn when associations are no longer adaptiveif bell is presented many times and food does not arrive animal learns that the bell is no longer a god predictor of foodsalivary responses disappear NOTE the strongest association occurs when the CS is presented slightly before the US because it acts as a predictor the CS warns you of an upcoming Us extinction a process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus spontaneous recovery a process in which a previously extinguished response reemerges following presentation of the conditioned stimulus if the delicious plant blooms during a certain season the adaptive response is to check back once in a while to see if it blooms after the rain extinction reduces the strength of the associated bond but does not eliminate it
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