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Ch 8 Thinking and Intelligence.doc

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PSYC 100
Daniel Levitin

Ch 8 Thinking and IntelligenceHow Does the Mind Represent InformationSome thoughts generate images in our heads others words spoken some pulled fully formed without any conscious awareness of where they came fromThe brain represents information and that the act of thinkingcognitionis directly associated with manipulating these representationsAnalogical representations have some characteristics of and are therefore analogous to actual objectsincludes maps which correspondto geographical layouts and family trees which depict relationships between relativesSymbolic representations words or ideas are abstract and do not have relationships to physical qualities of objects in the worldA Mental Images Are Analogical RepresentationsCooper and Shepard participants shown lettes and numbers asked to determine whether each object was in its normal orientation or mirror image longest reaction time is fully upside downParticipants had mentally rotated representations of the objects or view the objects in their upright positionsStephen Kosslyn and his colleagues visual imagery is associated with activity in visual perception primary visual cortex the same brain areas activatd hen we view something are active when we think in imagesThe representation of that picture in your minds eye parallels the representation in your brain the first time you saw the pictureThe mental image is not perfectly accurate corresponds generally to the physical object it represents1 Limits of Analogical RepresentationThe regularization of irregular shapes in memory is a shortcut we use unconsciously for keeping information in memoryWhile generally useful such shortcuts can lead to errorsB Concepts are Symbolic RepresentationsOur symbolic representations consists of words which can represent abstract ideas in a succinct verbal formGrouping things based on shred properties categorization reduces the amount of knowledge we must hold in memory and is therefore an efficient way of thinkingConcept a mental representation that groupscategorizes objects events or relations around common themesa concept ensuresthat we do not have to store every instance of an object a relation or a quality or dimension individuallyinstead we store an abstract representation based on the properties that particular items or particular ideas sharedefining attribute model the idea that a concept is characterized by a list of features that are necessary to determine if an object is a member of the category fails to capture many key aspects of how we organize things in our heads1 suggests that membership within a category is on al all or none basis but in reality we often make exceptions in our categorization ex birds can fly penguins are birds2 also states that all of the given categorys attributes are equally salient in terms of defining that category however some attributes are more important for defining membership than others but that the boundaries between categories are much fuzzier than the defining attribute model suggests3 all members of a category are equal in category membershipno one item is a better fit than any otherprototype model best example an approach to object categorization that is based on the premise that within each category Some members are more representative than othersallows for flexibility in the representation of concepts particular prototype can be chosen for different reasonsExemplar model information stored about the members of a category is used to determine category membershipall examples of exemplars of category members form the conceptthe exemplar model assumes that through experience people form a fuzzy representation of a concept because there is no single representation of any concept account for the observation that some category members are more prototypical than others the prototypes are simply members we have encountered more oftenC Schemas Organize Useful Information about Enviornmentsdifferent class of knowledge called schemas enables us to interact with the complex realities of our daily environmentsschemas help us perceive organize and process informationRoger Schank and Robet Abelson have referred to these schemas about sequences as scriptsGender roles the prescribed behaviors for females and males are one type of schema operate at the unconscious levelWe employ schemas because a common situations have consistent attributes b people have specific roles within situational contexts
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