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Lecture

Attention_and_Memory.doc

14 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Daniel Levitin

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Description
IAttention and MemoryHM Henry Molaison suffered from severe epilepsy Originated in the temporal lobessurgery lost the ability to form new long term memoryworld stopped Sept 1953Every day is alone in itselfMemory the nervous systems capacity to acquire and retain useable skills and knowledge allowing organisms to benefit from experience often incomplete biased distortedA How Does Attention Determine What is RememberedLook listencommands that direct attentionattention is limited when divided among too many tasks performance suffersmultitasking1 Visual Attention Is Selective and SerialAnne Treisman we automatically identify primitive features such as color shape orientation and movement within an environmentTresiman has proposed that separate systems analyze objects different visual featuresParallel processing these systems all process information at the same time and we can attend selectively to only feature by effectively blocking the further processing of the others visual search tasks feature search tasksparticipants look at a display of different objects on a computer screen searching for the ones called targets that differ from the others in only one feature other objects in the displaydistractionsColor motion orientation and size features that pop out despiteof distractersSearching for two features is serial need to look at stimuli one at a time and effortful takes longer and requires more attentionConjunction task extrying to find all the red Xs in a display of differently colored Xs and Ys stimulus looking for is made up of two different features2Auditory Attention Allows Selective ListeningHard to perform two tasks the same time esp if uses same mechanismsEC Cherryselective listening cocktail party phenomenon focus on a single conversation in the midst of a chaotic cocktail party yet a particular stimulus can capture your attentionProximity and loudness influence what you will attend to your selective attention can also determine which conversation you hearPersonally relevant information often gets through attention filter3Selective Attention Can Operate At Multiple Stages of ProcessingDonald Broadbent the filter theorypeople have a limited capacity for sensory information and thus screen incoming information letting in only the most important information and closes for irrelevant informationSome stimuli demands attention ex cramps higher pitched sounds like crying babyDecisions about what to attend are made early in the perceptual process but studies also reveal that unattended information is processed to some extentChange blindness often blind to large changes in our environments because we cannot attend to everything in the vast array of visual information available ex giving directions to stranger then momentarily blocked 50 of participants didnt notice if talking to different person if same race and sexLarge discrepancy betweenwhat people believe they see and what they actually see change blindness shows how attention influences memoryB What Are the Basic Stages of MemoryInformation processing model Memorys multiple processes can be thought of as operating over time in three distinct phases 1 encoding phase occurs at the same time as learning as info is acquired Encoded or changed into a neural code that the brain can use on acquisition 2 the storage phrase which can last a fraction of a second or as long as a lifetimeat least three storage systems 3 retrieval Modal memory model Sensory memory short termworking memory and long term memory proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin
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