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Lecture 41

PSYC 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 41: Catatonia, Seasonal Affective Disorder, Noid


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Daniel Levitin
Lecture
41

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Manic+ phases:+ elevated+ mood,+ increased+ activity,+ diminished+ need+ for+ sleep,+ grandiose+ ideas,+
racing+thoughts,+and+extreme+distractibility.+
Hypomanic+ phases:+ heightened+ creativity+ and+ productivity,+ and+ can+ be+ pleasurable+ and+
rewarding.++
Jamison:+ an% Unquiet% Mind.+ Suffered+ from+ bipolar+ disorder+ and+ took+ lithium+ to+ help.+ This+ drug+
deprives+people+from+good+moods.++
Mood(disorders(have(cognitive,(situational,(and(biological(components(
Depression+ has+ a+ genetic+ component.+ Concordance+ rates+ between+ identical+ twins+ are+ 4+ times+
higher+ than+ between+ fraternal+ twins.+ + Genetic+ contribution+ to+ depression+ is+ weaker+ than+ for+
schizophrenia+and+bipolar+disorder.++
Concordance+in+identical+twins+is+of+70%,+and+of+20%+ for+fraternal+twins.+All+of+those+affected+
with+the+disease+have+the+same+defect.+Its+heredity+is+complex+and+not+just+related+to+one+gene.+
Successive+generation+of+bipolar+disorder+suffers+have+more+severe+disorders+at+an+early+age+of+
unset.++
Major+depression+involves+a+deficiency+of+one+or+more+monoamines.+Medication+that+increases+
the+ availability+ of+ norepinephrine+ alleviates+ depression.+ Selective+ serotonin+ reuptake+ inhibitor+
(SSRI)+ increases+ the+ levels+ of+ serotonin.+Damage+ to+ the+ left+ prefrontal+ cortex+ can+ lead+ to+
depression.+The+brain+waves+of+depressed+people+show+low+activity+in+these+same+regions+in+the+
left+hemisphere.+These+patterns+persist+in+people+who+are+in+remission.+
Biological+rhythms:+implicated+in+depression:+depressed+patients+enter+REM+sleep+more+quickly+
and+have+more+of+it.+Indeed,+depressed+people+sleep+a+lot+and+always+feel+tired.+
SAD:+seasonal+affective+disorder+
Life+stressor+can+cause+depression;+the+main+ones+are+interpersonal+losses,+and+the+more+there+
are,+the+more+likely+it+is+that+depression+will+occur.+A+person+that+has+close+friends+is+less+likely+to+
have+depression+when+faced+with+stress.++
Cognitive+ processes+ also+ play+ a+ role+ in+ depression.+ Beck:+ depressed+ people+ think+ negatively+
about+themselves,+their+situation,+their+future+(cognitive+triad).+Depressed+people+attribute+their+
failures+ on+ themselves,+ and+ successes+ to+ luck.+ They+ also+ make+errors+ of+ logic,+ such+ as+ over+
generalizing,+magnifying+the+seriousness+of+bad+events,+and+taking+responsibility+for+bad+events+
that+ didn’t+ really+ have+ anything+ to+ do+ with+ them.+ Cognitive+ patterns+ are+ more+ a+ cause+ than+ a+
consequence+of+depression.+
Learned+helplessness+model:+people+feel+unable+to+control+events+around+them.+It+is+made+by+
Seligman:+animals+that+couldn’t+escape+situations+became+passive.+
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